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1542: Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII is beheaded for adultery aged 18. On the same day Jane Boleyn, Viscountess Rochford, sister-in-law of Henry VIII is also beheaded.
1578: Tycho Brahe first sketches his “Tychonic system” of solar system.
1633: Astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing the belief that earth revolves around the sun.
1689: Parliament adopts the Bill of Rights which establishes the rights of parliament and places limits on the crown.
1692: Glencoe Massacre: about 38 MacDonalds killed early in the morning by rival Campbell clan members, allegedly for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.
1777: The Marquis de Sade is arrested without charge and imprisoned in Vincennes fortress.
1832: First appearance of cholera in London.
1858: Sir Richard Burton and John Speake explore Lake Tanganyika, Africa.
1861: Abraham Lincoln is declared US president.
1866: Jesse James holds up his first bank, stealing $15,000 from the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri.
1883: Death of composer Richard Wagner aged 69.
1912: England cricket team regains the Ashes.
1917: Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari (Margaretha Zelle) is arrested in Paris on suspicion that she is a German spy.
1935: Bruno Hauptmann found guilty of kidnap and murder of the Lindbergh baby.
1940: Actress Lana Turner marries bandleader Artie Shaw.
1945: Allied planes begin bombing Dresden, Germany; a firestorm results and over 22,000 die. On the same day, USSR captures Budapest, after a 49-day battle.
1955: Israel acquires 4 of 7 Dead Sea scrolls.
1961: Frank Sinatra launches his own record label, Reprise.
1974: Dissident Nobel writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn is expelled from the USSR.
1980: The 8th Winter Olympic Games open in Lake Placid, New York.
1984: Konstantin Chernenko succeeds Yuri Andropov as leader of the Soviet Union.
1991: Death of athletics commentator Ron Pickering after heart bypass surgery aged 60.
1996: Take That announced they were splitting up in front of the world’s press at The Hilton in Manchester and that their next single, a cover of The Bee Gees’ “How Deep Is Your Love” would be their last.
1998: Police at Manchester Airport arrested former Stone Roses singer, Ian Brown after an incident during a flight from Paris. Brown was found guilty in August the same year and jailed for four months; British Airways also banned him from flying with the airline.
2002: Country singer/songwriter Waylon Jennings died in his sleep after a lengthy fight with diabetes.
2016: All four members of English indie rock group Viola Beach died along with their manager, in a car crash in Södertälje, Sweden.
2018: An Israeli Police report recommends Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu be prosecuted on bribery, fraud and breach-of-trust charges.
BIRTHDAYS: George Segal, actor, 86; Bill Szymczyk, producer, 77; Jerry Springer, TV presenter, 76; Stockard Channing, actress, 76; Peter Gabriel, singer/songwriter 70; David Nauighton, actor, 69; Peter Hook, bassist (Joy Division/New Order) 64; Liam Brady, former footballer, 64; Henry Rollins, singer/actor, 59; Sonia (Evans) singer, 49; Robbie Williams, singer/songwriter, 46; Feist (Lesley) musician, 44; Mena Suvari, actress, 41; Aston Merrygold, singer (JLS) 32.