1564: Birth of dramatist Christopher Marlowe in Canterbury.
1606: First known European landing in Australia by Dutch navigator Willem Jansz.
1616: The Roman Inquisition delivers an injunction to Galileo demanding he abandon his belief in heliocentrism, which states the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun.
1797: The Bank of England issues first £1 note.
1802: Birth of French author Victor Hugo.
1815: Napoleon Bonaparte and his supporters leave Elba to start a 100 day re-conquest of France.
1839: The first Grand National steeplechase at Aintree Racecourse won by 5/1favourite Lottery.
1863: Abraham Lincoln signs National Currency Act, establishing a single national US currency.
1869: Franz Schubert’s Symphony number 4, “The Tragic”, premieres.
1885: The Berlin Conference gives Congo to Belgium and Nigeria to Great Britain.
1891: Henrik Ibsen’s “Hedda Gabler” premieres in Oslo.
1912: Miners go on strike in Britain.
1916: Mutual signs Charlie Chaplin to a film contract.
1917: The first jazz records are recorded – “Dixie Jazz Band One Step” and “Livery Stable Blues” by Original Dixieland Jass (sic) Band for the Victor Talking Machine Company. On the same day, the Russian Army mutinies when Tsar Nicholas II orders them to quell civil unrest in Petrograd.
1918: Stands at the Hong Kong Jockey Club collapse and burn, killing 604 people.
1924: Adolf Hitler goes on trial for treason after the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich.
1933: The Golden Gate Bridge groundbreaking ceremony is held at Crissy Field, San Francisco.
1935: The German Luftwaffe is re-formed under Reichsmarshall Hermann Goering. On the same day, RADAR is first demonstrated by Robert Watson-Watt.
1950: Leonard Bernstein’s “Age of Anxiety” premieres in New York.
1952: Winston Churchill announces that Britain has its own atomic bomb.
1954: Singles chart:
- Oh Mein Papa – Eddie Calvert
- Blowing Wild – Frankie Laine
- That’s Amore – Dean Martin
- Cloud Lucky Seven – Guy Mitchell
- Tennessee Wig Walk – Bonnie Lou
- Don’t Laugh At Me (Cause I’m A Fool) – Norman Wisdom
- The Happy Wanderer – The Obernkirchen Children’s Choir
- Man/Woman – Rosemary Clooney/Jose Ferrer
- Rags To Riches – David Whitfield
- I See The Moon – Stargazers
1956: Poets Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath meet at a party in Cambridge.
1962: The US Supreme court disallows race separation on public transport.
1967: Album chart:
- The Monkees – The Monkees
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- Between The Buttons – The Rolling Stones
- Best Of… – The Beach Boys
- Going Places – Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
- S.R.O. – Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
- Hand Clappin’ Foot Stompin’ Funky Butt Live – Geno Washington and the Ram Jam Band
- Four Tops Live – The Four Tops
- Come The Day – The Seekers
- Greatest Hits – Bob Dylan
1968: Twenty-one female patients die in a fire which sweeps through a wing of Shelton Mental Hospital near Shrewsbury.
1971: Two RUC officers are shot and killed by the IRA while on a mobile patrol in the Ardoyne area of Belfast.
1975: Police Constable Stephen Tribble, aged 22, is shot three times at point blank range by a gunman on the run from detectives in Baron’s Court, West London.
1980: Egypt and Israel exchange ambassadors for the first time.
1984: The last of the remaining American forces occupying Beirut pull out of the Lebanese capital.
1987: The Church of England’s General Synod votes by a huge majority in favour of the ordination of women priests.
1991: The Kuwaiti capital is liberated by the Gulf War Allies after 208 days of Iraqi occupation. Coalition planes bomb retreating Iraqi forces, creating the so-called ‘Highway of Death’.
1993: A car bomb explodes underneath the World Trade Center in New York, killing at least five people.
1995: London finance house Barings collapses after huge losses in Singapore by rogue trader Nick Leeson.
1997: Songwriter Ben Raleigh, composer of Scooby Doo Where Are You? dies in a fire in his kitchen after setting fire to his bathrobe while cooking.
2000: Former British spy David Shayler is sued by the government for breach of confidence and contract over information leaked to a national newspaper.
2009: Death of actress Wendy Richard. On the same day, supermodel Gisele Bundchen marries American football quarterback Tom Brady.
2010: With debts of around £70m Portsmouth become the first Premier League club to enter administration.
2019: India launches air strikes on alleged terrorist camps in Pakistan. On the same day, Vatican treasurer Cardinal George Pell is convicted of child sexual abuse in Melbourne, Australia.
BIRTHDAYS: Sandie Shaw (Sandra Goodrich) singer, 74; Michael Bolton (Bolotin) singer-songwriter, 68; Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, president of Turkey, 67; Jaz (Jeremy) Coleman, vocalist/composer (Killing Joke) 61; Tim Commerford, bassist (Rage Against The Machine) 53; Erykah Badu (Erica Wright), singer-songwriter, 50; Max Martin (Karl Sandberg), producer/songwriter, 50; Ole Gunnar Solksjaer, Manchester Utd manager, 48; Corinne Bailey Rae, singer-songwriter, 42; Emmanuel Adebayor; footballer, 37.