1445: Birth of Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli.
1565: Portuguese soldier Estácio de Sá founds the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1587: Puritan English parliamentary leader Sir Peter Wentworth is confined in the Tower of London.
1711: The first issue of “The Spectator” is published.
1810: Birth of composer Frederic Chopin in Poland.
1811: Egyptian king Muhammad Ali Pasha oversees the ceremonial murder of 500 people.
1845: US President John Tyler signs a resolution annexing the Republic of Texas.
1872: Yellowstone becomes the world’s first national park.
1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.
1916: Germany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic.
1932: The 20 month old son of aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh is kidnapped from the family home in New Jersey.
1934: Primo Carnera beats American challenger Tommy Loughran by unanimous points decision at Madison Square Garden, NYC for the NYSAC and NBA heavyweight boxing titles.
1936: The Boulder Dam is completed between Nevada and Arizona.
1941: German troops invade Bulgaria.
1946: The government nationalises and takes control of the Bank of England after 252 years.
1947: The International Monetary Fund begins operation.
1949: Former world heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis retires after defending his title a record 25 times.
1950: Berkshire nuclear scientist Klaus Fuchs is sentenced to 14 years imprisonment for espionage after being found guilty of spying for the Soviet Union.
1953: Stalin suffers a stroke.
1954: The biggest explosion ever made by man is witnessed in the Pacific when US scientists explode their second H-bomb at Bikini Atoll.
1957: Singles chart:
- Young Love – Tab Hunter
- The Garden Of Eden – Frankie Vaughan
- Don’t Forbid Me – Pat Boone
- Singing The Blues – Guy Mitchell
- Knee Deep In The Blues – Guy Mitchell
- Don’t You Rock Me Daddy-O – Lonnie Donegan
- True Love – Bings Crosby and Grace Kelly
- Friendly Persuasion – Pat Boone
- The Adoration Waltz – David Whitfield
- Blueberry Hill – Fats Domino
1958: West Indian cricket all-rounder Gary Sobers turns his maiden Test century into a world record 365no in the Windies’ 3rd Test win over Pakistan in Kingston, Jamaica.
1961: US President John F Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
1964: Album chart:
- With The Beatles – The Beatles
- Please Please Me – The Beatles
- West Side Story – Original Soundtrack
- How Do You Like It – Gerry and the Pacemakers
- Meet The Searchers – The Searchers
- Freddie And The Dreamers – Freddie and the Drreamers
- Stay With The Hollies – The Hollies
- Greatest Hits – The Shadows
- Born Free – Frank Ifield
- In Dreams – Roy Orbison
1965: Australian swimming authorities suspend triple Olympic gold medal winner Dawn Fraser for 10 years for misconduct at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics after being accused of swimming the moat and stealing the Olympic flag from outside Emperor Hirohito’s palace, which she has always denied.
1967: The Beatles start recording the John Lennon song Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds at EMI Studios in Abbey Road, St John’s Wood. The song was inspired by a drawing made at school by his son Julian. On the same day, Dominica and St Lucia gain independence from Britain.
1968: Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice’s “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat” is first performed as a 15-minute pop cantata at Colet Court School in London. On the same day, Johnny Cash marries June Carter in Kentucky.
1969: Jim Morrison of The Doors is charged with lewd and lascivious behaviour after allegedly showing his penis to the audience during a show in Miami.
1971: Hundreds of thousands of workers across Britain take part in an unofficial day of protest against the government’s new industrial relations Bill.
1972: Two Catholic teenagers are shot dead by the RUC while joyriding in a stolen car in Belfast.
1973: The armed Palestinian group Black September seizes the Saudi Arabian embassy in Khartoum.
1974: Chris Difford places an ad in a shop window in Deptford saying: ‘Lyricist seeks musician for co-writing’. Glen Tillbrook answers and the pair go on to form Squeeze.
1978: Charlie Chaplin’s coffin and remains are stolen from a Swiss cemetery in an extortion plot.
1980: Everton legend Dixie Dean dies at his spiritual home Goodison Park while attending an Everton v Liverpool game. On the same day, Patti Smith and MC5 guitarist Fred Sonic Smith get married in Detroit.
1981: Republican prisoners in the Maze begin a second hunger strike; among them is Bobby Sands.
1982: Russian spacecraft Venera 14 lands on Venus.
1990: Whistleblowers and journalists risk criminal prosecution if they reveal information viewed as damaging to the defence of the UK as a new Official Secrets Act comes into force.
1991: Frank Smith from Air Supply dies of pneumonia in Melbourne, Australia.
1994: Fred West is charged with two further murders following the discovery of more human remains in the garden of his Gloucester home, bringing the total at that point to three. On the same day, Nirvana play their final ever concert at The Terminal Einz in Munich, Germany.
1995: During a gig at the Patinoire Auditorium in Lausanne, Switzerland, REM drummer Bill Berry collapses on stage from a ruptured brain aneurysm.
1997: Middleweight Sugar Ray Leonard retires after being knocked out by Héctor Camacho.
2002: The peseta is discontinued as official currency of Spain and is replaced with the euro.
2006: Death of Chelsea legend Peter Osgood aged 59.
2014: Newcastle manager Alan Pardew headbutts Hull midfielder David Meyler during a touchline spat. He is fined £100,000 by his club, another £60,000 by the FA and banned from the touchline for seven games.
2016: Drummer Ginger Baker goes into immediate retirement after being diagnosed with serious heart problems.
2017: Gustav Klimt’s painting “Bauerngarten” sells for $59.3m in London.
2020: Turkey launches a major offensive in Northern Syria.
BIRTHDAYS: Harry Belafonte (Bellanfanti), singer, 94; Michael Giles, drummer (King Crimson) 78; Mike D’Abo, singer-songwriter, 77; Roger Daltrey, singer (The Who) 77; Dirk Benedict, actor, 76; Martin O’Neill, football manager, 69; Ron Howard, director, 67; Tim (James) Daly, actor, 65; Nik Kershaw, singer-songwriter, 63; Paul Hollywood, TV presenter, 55; Zack Snyder, director, 55; Dafydd Leuan, drummer (Super Furry Animals) 52; Javier Bardem, actor, 52; Jensen Ackles, actor/director, 43; Lupita Nyong’o, actress, 38, Kesha (Sebert), singer-songwriter, 34; Justin Bieber, singer, 27.