1445: Birth of Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli.
1565: Portuguese soldier Estácio de Sá founds the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
1711: “The Spectator” begins publishing.
1810: Birth of composer Frederic Chopin in Poland.
1811: Egyptian king Muhammad Ali Pasha oversees the ceremonial murder of 500 people.
1845: US President John Tyler signs a resolution annexing the Republic of Texas.
1872: Yellowstone becomes the world’s first national park.
1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.
1916: Germany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic.
1932: The 20 month old son of aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh is kidnapped from home in New Jersey.
1936: The Boulder Dam is completed between Nevada and Arizona.
1941: German troops invade Bulgaria.
1946: The government nationalises and takes control of the Bank of England after 252 years.
1947: The International Monetary Fund begins operation.
1949: Former world heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis retires after defending his title a record 25 times.
1953: Stalin suffers a stroke.
1958: West Indian cricket all-rounder Gary Sobers turns his maiden Test century into a world record 365no in the Windies’ 3rd Test win over Pakistan in Kingston, Jamaica.
1961: JFK establishes the Peace Corps.
1965: Australian swimming authorities suspend triple Olympic gold medal winner Dawn Fraser for 10 years for misconduct at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.
1967: The Beatles started recording a new John Lennon song – “Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds” – at EMI Studios, Abbey Road. On the same day, Dominica and St Lucia gain independence from Britain.
1968: Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice’s “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat” is first performed as a 15-minute pop cantata at Colet Court School in London. On the same day, Johnny Cash marries June Carter in Kentucky.
1969: Jim Morrison of The Doors was charged with lewd and lascivious behaviour after allegedly showing his penis to the audience during a show in Miami.
1972: Two Catholic teenagers are shot dead by the Royal Ulster Constabulary while joyriding in a stolen car in Belfast.
1974: Chris Difford placed an advert in a shop window saying: ‘lyricist seeks musician for co-writing’. Glen Tillbrook answered the ad and the pair went on to form Squeeze.
1978: Charlie Chaplin’s coffin and remains are stolen from a Swiss cemetery in an extortion plot.
1980: Patti Smith and MC5 guitarist Fred Sonic Smith get married in Detroit.
1981: Republican prisoners in the Maze begin a second hunger strike; among them is Bobby Sands.
1982: Russian spacecraft Venera 14 lands on Venus.
1995: During a gig at the Patinoire Auditorium in Lausanne, Switzerland, REM drummer Bill Berry collapsed on stage from a ruptured brain aneurysm.
1997: Middleweight Sugar Ray Leonard retires after being knocked out by Héctor Camacho.
2002: The peseta is discontinued as official currency of Spain and is replaced with the euro.
2006: Death of Chelsea legend Peter Osgood aged 59.
2017: Gustav Klimt’s painting “Bauerngarten” sells for $59.3m in London.
BIRTHDAYS: Harry Belafonte, singer, 93; Michael Giles, drummer (King Crimson) 78; Mike D’Abo, singer/songwriter, 76; Roger Daltrey, singer (The Who) 76; Dirk Benedict, actor, 75; Burning Spear (Winston Rodney) reggae artist; Martin O’Neill, football manager, 68; Ron Howard, director, 66; Nik Kershaw, singer/songwriter, 62; Paul Hollywood, baker/TV judge, 54; Dafydd Leuan, drummer (Super Furry Animals) 51; Javier Bardem, actor, 51; Jensen Ackles, actor/director 42; Lupita Nyong’o, actress, 37; Kesha (Rose Sebert) singer, 33; Justin Bieber, singer, 26.