1454: Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci is born in Florence.
1497: Nicholaus Copernicus’ first recorded astronomical observation.
1522: Martin Luther begins preaching his “Invocavit Sermons” in the German city of Wittenberg.
1562: Kissing in public is banned in Naples – punishable by death.
1566: David Rizzio, the private secretary to Mary I of Scotland, is murdered in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh.
1721: Chancellor of the Exchequer John Aislabie is confined in the Tower of London.
1741:The British fleet begins an assault on Cartagena.
1796: Napoleon Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais.
1842: Guiseppe Verdi’s opera “Nabucco” premieres in Milan.
1844: Guiseppe Verdi’s opera “Hernani” premieres in Venice.
1864: Ulysses S Grant is appointed commander of Union Army.
1892: Birth of novelist and poet Vita Sackville-West in Kent.
1908: Inter Milan founded as Foot-Ball Club Internazionale.
1916: Mexican General Francisco “Pancho” Villa invades US. On the same day, Germany declares war on Portugal.
1918: The Russian Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party.
1930: Birth of jazz saxophonist Ornette Coleman.
1932: Eamon De Valera becomes President of Ireland.
1935: Adolf Hitler announces the creation of a new air force, the Luftwaffe.
1945: 334 US B-29 Superfortresses attack Tokyo with 120,000 fire bombs.
1951: Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam submit a classified paper at the Los Alamos lab, in which they proposed their revolutionary new design, staged implosion, for a practical megaton-range hydrogen bomb.
1953: Stalin’s funeral is held in Moscow.
1956: Britain orders order the deportation of Greek Cypriot leader, Archbishop Makarios, in the hope of restoring law and order to the island.
1959: The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American Toy Fair in New York.
1961: Soviet Sputnik 9 carries and returns from orbit a dog named Chernushka, frogs and a guinea pig.
1962: Egyptian President Nasser declares Gaza belongs to Palestinians.
1963: The Beatles begin their first British tour, supporting Tommy Roe and Chris Montez.
1966: Brian Wilson and the Wrecking Crew of session musicians begin recording the next Beach Boys single, God Only Knows.
1970: Newly christened Black Sabbath made their concert debut at The Roundhouse, London.
1971: Three off-duty Scottish soldiers are killed by the Provisional IRA. 4000 shipyard workers take to the streets to demand internment in response.
1973: The people of Northern Ireland vote overwhelmingly to remain within the United Kingdom.
1974: A Japanese soldier, a guerrilla operating in The Philippines, surrenders, unaware that the Second Word War had been over for 29 years.
1975: Singles chart:
- If – Telly Savalas
- Bye Bye Baby – The Bay City Rollers
- Make Me Smile (Come Up And See Me) – Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel
- Only You Can – Fox
- The Secrets That You Keep – Mud
- My Eyes Adored You – Frankie Valli
- Pick Up The Pieces – Average White Band
- Please Tell Him That I Said Hello – Dana
- There’s A Whole Lot Of Loving – Guys And Dolls
- I’m Stone In Love With You – Johnny Mathis
- Physical Graffiti – Led Zeppelin
- On The Level – Status Quo
- Greatest Hits – Elton John
- Crime Of The Century – Supertramp
- Tubular Bells – Mike Oldfield
- Rock n Roll – John Lennon
- Average White Band – The Average White Band
- Greatest Hits – Simon and Garfunkel
- His Greatest Hits – Engelbert Humperdinck
- Sheer Heart Attack – Queen
1976: A line supporting a cable car snaps killing 42 people in the Dolomite mountains in northern Italy.
1981: John Lambe, who became known as the M5 rapist, is sentenced to life in prison.
1983: Zimbabwe opposition leader Joshua Nkomo flees to Botswana.
1986: NASA announces searchers found the remains of the Shuttle Challenger astronauts.
1988: Actress Audrey Hepburn is appointed a UNICEF special ambassador.
1992: Death of former Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin aged 85.
1994: The IRA launch a mortar attack on Heathrow Airport. On the same day, author Charles Bukowski dies of leukaemia aged 73.
1997: Rapper Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher Wallace) is gunned down and killed as he leaves a party at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles.
1998: Dr Dre’s Aftermath Entertainment signs an unknown rapper called Eminem.
2006: Water is discovered on Enceladus, the sixth largest moon of Saturn.
2007: Brad Delp, lead singer of the band Boston, commits suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning at his home in New Hampshire.
2010: Rapper Lil Wayne is sentenced to a year in prison at New York City’s Rikers Island prison after pleading guilty to gun possession.
2011: Space Shuttle Discovery makes its final landing after 39 flights.
2015: President Barack Obama signs an executive order declaring Venezuela a national security threat to the US.
2020: Italy announces it is locking down the whole country due to a spike in COVID-19 cases.
BIRTHDAYS: John Cale, singer-songwriter/producer, 79; Robin Trower, guitarist, 76; Martin Fry, singer (ABC) 63; Linda (Clorinda) Fiorentino, actress, 61; Juliette Binoche, actress, 57; Katherine Parkinson, actress, 43; Oscar Isaac, actor, 42; Matthew Gray Gubler, actor, 41; Clint Dempsey, footballer, 38; Brittany Snow, actress, 35; Stacey Dooley, documentary maker, 34; Pedro Neto, footballer, 21.