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1793: Jean Sylvain Bailly, first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
1847: Sir James Young Simpson is the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic.
1859: Jules Leotard performs the first flying trapeze circus act in Paris.
1912: Explorer Robert Scott’s body and diary are found in Antarctica.
1918: Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary abdicates and Austria becomes a republic.
1923: Hitler is arrested for attempting to seize power during the “Beer Hall Putsch”.
1926: The first recorded aerial bombing on US soil took place in Williamson County, Illinois, during a feud between rival liquor gangs.
1927: Leon Trotsky is expelled from the soviet communist party, paving the way for Stalin to consolidate complete power.
1933: The Nazis receive 92% of the vote in Germany. On the same day, the first known photo of so-called Loch Ness monster is taken by Hugh Gray.
1935: Egas Moniz performs the first modern brain surgery in Lisbon.
1936: Eugene O’Neill wins the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1942: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal begins between Allied and Japanese forces in Solomon Islands.
1948: Japanese prime minister Hideki Tojo is sentenced to death by a war crimes tribunal.
1953: David Ben-Gurion resigns as prime minister of Israel.
1954: The immigration station on Ellis Island in New York harbour is closed.
1965: Ferdinand Marcos becomes President of The Philippines.
1966: Buzz Aldrin takes the first ‘space selfie’, a photo of himself performing extravehicular activity in space during the Gemini 12 mission.
1969: The US army announces it is investigating William Calley for the alleged massacre of civilians at the Vietnamese village of My Lai on March 19.
1974: South Africa is suspended from the UN General Assembly over its racial policies.
1979: US President Carter announces a halt to Iranian oil imports and freezes Iranian assets in response to the raid on the American Embassy in Tehran.
1982: Yuri Andropov becomes leader of the Soviet Union.
1990: Rolling Stone Ronnie Wood broke both his legs after his car crashed on the M4 motorway near Marlborough, Wilts. On the same day, Crown Prince Akihito is installed as Emperor of Japan.
1992: The comedy Absolutely Fabulous first appears on BBC television.
1995: Benetton driver Michael Schumacher wins his second Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
2001: Taliban forces abandon the Afghanistan capital Kabul.
2007: Boy George was charged with the false imprisonment of a 28-year-old man. Police said the offence was alleged to have taken place at his home in Hackney on April 28.
2008: Mitch Mitchell, the drummer with the Jimi Hendrix Experience, was found dead in his US hotel room aged 61.
2011: Silvio Berlusconi resigns as Prime Minister of Italy.
BIRTHDAYS: Booker T Jones, musician, 75; Neil Young, singer/songwriter, 74; Megan Mullally, actress, 61; Nadia Comaneci, Olympic gymnast, 58; Mariella Frostrup, TV presenter, 57; Tonya Harding, figure skater, 49; Cote de Pablo (María José de Pablo Fernández), actress, 40; Ryan Gosling, actor, 39; Anne Hathaway, actress, 37; Carlton Cole, former footballer, 36.