1541: Catherine Howard, Henry VIII’s fifth wife is confined in the Tower of London.
1580: Spanish troops land in Ireland.
1673: Charles I dismisses the Earl of Shaftsbury.
1729: Spain, France and Britain sign the Treaty of Seville.
1799: Napoleon Bonaparte stages a coup and becomes the dictator of France under the title First Consul.
1841: Birth of Edward VII.
1872: Almost 1,000 buildings are destroyed in The Great Boston Fire.
1888: Jack The Ripper’s fifth victim, Mary Kelly is found eviscerated in her room.
1906: Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first US President to visit another country when he travels to Panama and Puerto Rico.
1907: The Cullinan Diamond is presented to King Edward VII on his birthday.
1914: Birth of Hedy Lamarr, actress and inventor of a radio guidance system for Allied torpedoes in the Second World War.
1918: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates after Germany is defeated in the First World War.
1921: The Partito Nazionalista Fascista is formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini.
1923: Nazis fail to overthrow the government in the second day of the Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler flees.
1930: The first non stop flight from New York to Panama.
1932: A hurricane hits Cuba, killing 2,500 people.
1937: The Japanese army conquers Shanghai. On the same day, former Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald dies.
1938: Kristallnacht, the first large-scale program of anti-Jewish violence, begins in Germany and Austria.
1940: Former Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain dies of bowel cancer.
1953: Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, founder and first King of Saudi Arabia dies aged 78. On the same day, Welsh poet Dylan Thomas dies aged 39.
1955: The Everly Brothers made their first studio recordings cutting four tracks in 22 minutes, at Nashville’s Old Tulane Hotel studios.
1961: Brian Epstein saw The Beatles playing. live for the first time during a lunchtime session at The Cavern in Matthew Street, Liverpool.
1966: John Lennon met Yoko Ono for the first time at her art exhibition ‘Unfinished Paintings and Objects’ at the Indica Gallery, London.
1969: Simon and Garfunkel record the song Bridge Over Troubled Water with Larry Knechtel on piano.
1970: Former French President Charles de Gaulle dies aged 79.
1980: Iraqi President Saddam Hussain declares a holy war against Iran.
1990: The internal revenue seized all of country singer Willie Nelson’s bank accounts and real estate holdings in connection with a $16million tax debt.
1996: Evander Holyfield defeats Mike Tyson to become only the second boxer after Muhammad Ali to win the world heavyweight title three times.
2004: Stieg Larsson, author of Girl With The Dragon Tattoo, dies of a heart attack aged 50.
2012: Death of Coronation Street actor Bill Tarmey.
BIRTHDAYS: Roger McGough, poet, 82; Phil May, singer (The Pretty Things) 75; Lou Ferrigno, actor/bodybuilder 68; Demetra Plakas, drummer (L7) 59; Susan Tedeschi, musician 49; Eric Dane, actor, 47; Caroline Flack, TV presenter, 40; Delta Goodrem, singer, 35.