1346: King David II of Scotland is captured by Edward III’s troops at the Battle of Neville’s Cross at Calais and imprisoned in the Tower of London for 11 years.
1483: Tomas de Torquemada appointed inquisitor-general of the Spanish Inquisition.
1660: The men who signed the death warrant of Charles I are hung, drawn and quartered.
1662: Charles II sells Dunkirk to France for £320,000.
1740: Ivan IV becomes Tsar of Russia.
1825: Don Sanche, the first opera by Franz Listz premieres in Paris.
1831: Premier of Felix Mendelssohn’s 1st Piano Concerto in G.
1849: Death of composer Frederic Chopin ages 39.
1854: French and British forces bombard Sevastopol for the first time during the Crimean War.
1855: The Bessemer process for making steel is patented.
1888: Thomas Edison files the patent for the optical phonograph (the first moving film projector).
1907: Guillermo Marconi’s company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada and Clifden, Ireland.
1912: Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on Turkey.
1917: Britain bombs Germany for the first time.
1918: Yugoslavia proclaims itself a republic.
1933: Albert Einstein arrives in the US as a refugee from Nazi Germany.
1957: Author Albert Camus is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1961: The New York Museum of Modern Art hangs Matisse’s impressionist masterpiece Le Bateau upside down. It’s not corrected until December 3.
1962: The Beatles make their TV debut on the local north west magazine program People and Places.
1963: The Beatles record I Want To Hold Your Hand at EMI Studios in Abbey Road, St John’s Wood.
1964: Irina Press of the Soviet Union wins the gold medal in the first Women’s Pentathlon at the Olympic Games in Tokyo.
1967: The musical Hair premieres on Broadway.
1969: Cold Turkey by The Plastic Ono Band is released.
1975: The UN passes resolution saying “Zionism is a form of racism”.
1979: Mother Teresa of Calcutta is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1981: Nelson Piquet wins the Formula 1 World Drivers Championship.
2000: Train crash at Hatfield leads to the collapse of Railtrack.
2008: Four Tops singer Levi Stubbs dies at his Detroit home aged 72.
2018: Canada legalizes the sale of recreational cannabis.
BIRTHDAYS: Michael Eavis, farmer/founder of the Glastonbury Festival, 84; Sir Cameron Mackintosh, British stage producer, 73; Michael McKean, musician/actor (David St Hubbins in Spinal Tap) 72; George Wendt, actor, 71; Dolph Lundgren, actor, 60; Mike Judge, cartoonist (Bevis & Butthead), 57; Mark Gatiss, writer/actor, 53; Ziggy Marley, musician, 51; Wyclef Jean, musician (Fugees), 50; Eminem (Marshall Mathers III), rapper 47; Matthew Macfadyen, actor, 45; Kimi Raikonnen, Formula 1 racing driver, 40; Felicity Jones, actress, 36.