1409: The Austrian civil war ends.
1794: First performance of Joseph Haydn’s 101st Symphony in D.
1815: The US declares war on Algiers for taking US prisoners & demanding tribute.
1837: President Andrew Jackson and Congress recognize the Republic of Texas.
1842: First performance of Felix Mendelssohn;s third “Scottish” Symphony.
1847: Birth of Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, in Edinburgh.
1857: The Second Opium War: France and the UK declare war on China.
1861: Tsar Alexander II of Russia signs the Emancipation Manifesto, freeing serfs and granting them the full rights of free citizens.
1875: The first recorded hockey game in Montreal, Canada. On the same day, Georges Bizet’s last and greatest opera “Carmen” premieres in Paris.
1891: The Penalty spot kick rule in football is conceived, but does not come into effect until the following season.
1894: The government of William Gladstone resigns.
1904: England cricketer Bernard Bosanquet takes 6 for 51 as the tourists dismiss Australia for 171 in the fourth Test in Sydney to regain the Ashes.On the same day, Kaiser Willhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a sound recording of a political document, using Thomas Edison’s cylinder.
1917: The first major strike of the Russian “February Revolution” starts at the giant Putilov factory in Petrograd.
1921: Drs Banting and Best announce the discovery of insulin in Canada.
1923: The first edition of Time magazine.
1924: Sean O’Casey’s “Juno & the Paycock” premieres in Dublin.
1931: The Star Spangled Banner officially becomes the US national anthem. On the same day, Cab Calloway records “Minnie The Moocher”, jazz’s first million seller.
1934: Gangster John Dillinger breaks out of jail using a wooden pistol.
1939: Mahatma Gandhi begins a fast in Bombay to protest against autocratic rule in India.
1943: Bethnal Green Tube disaster: 173 die in a stampede sheltering in an air raid. Details of the UK’s greatest loss of civilian life in the Second World War was censored until 1945.
1945: The RAF erroneously bombs The Hague, killing 511.
1955: Elvis Presley makes his first TV appearance on “Louisiana Hayride”.
1959: Death of comedian Lou Costello from a heart attack aged 52.
1961: King Hassan II ascends to throne of Morocco.
1969: Launch of Apollo 9.
1971: Winnie Mandela is sentenced to a year in jail in South Africa.
1974: A Turkish Airlines flight crashes in the Ermenonville Forest outside Paris, killing all 346 people on board.
1976: Mozambique closes its border with Rhodesia.
1980: Pierre Trudeau is sworn in, for the second time, as Canadian Prime Minister.
1983: Death of Herge (Georges Prosper Remi), creator of Tintin, aged 75.
1985: The NUM ends the 51-week miners strike.
1987: Death of Hollywood legend Danny Kaye (Daniel Kaminski) aged 76.
1991: Los Angeles police officers severely beat motorist Rodney King, The incident is captured on amateur video. On the same day, Latvia & Estonia vote to become independent of the USSR.
1992: The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is established.
1995: Camilla Parker Bowles and her husband Andrew divorce.
1997: The tallest free-standing structure in the Southern Hemisphere, Sky Tower in Auckland, New Zealand, opens after two-and-a-half years of construction.
1998: Bill Gates testifies at a Senate Judiciary Committee about Microsoft’s dominant position in the software industry.
2000: Former Bay City Rollers drummer, Derek Longmuir was released on bail on charges of downloading child pornographic images from the internet and keeping indecent videos in his home.
2005: Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly an airplane around the world solo without any stops or refueling.
2006: Death of Scottish absurdist poet/musician Ivor Cutler aged 82.
2008: Beatles engineer Norman Smith died at the age of 85. Smith who worked on every studio recording the band made between 1962 and 1965 was nicknamed Hurricane and had a hit himself in 1971 with the song ‘Don’t Let It Die’.
2010: Death of former Labour Party leader Michael Foot aged 96.
2012: Guitarist Ronnie Montrose died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound aged 64.
2013: Songwriter and singer with The Miracles, Bobby Rogers, died aged 73. On the same day, a two year-old US girl becomes the first child born with HIV to be cured.
2015: Keith Richards objected to a planned £1.5million cafe being built on a beachfront near his Redlands estate in West Sussex.
2017: A mass grave of 800 children and infants is confirmed at a former Catholic care home in Tuam, Ireland.
2018: Death of Roger Bannister, first man to run the sub four-minute mile, aged 88.
BIRTHDAYS: Mike Pender, guitarist (The Searchers) 79; John Virgo, snooker player, 74; Jennifer Warnes, singer, 73; Snowy (Terence) White, guitarist (Thin Lizzy, Roger Waters), 72; Blue (Derek) Weaver, musician (Amen Corner/The Strawbs) 71; Robyn Hitchcock, singer/songwriter, 68; Chris Hughes, drummer/producer (Adam and the Ants) 66; Miranda Richardson, actress, 62; Tone-Loc (Anthony Terrell Smith), rapper, 54; Darren Anderton, former footballer, 48; Ronan Keating, singer, 43; Alex Zane, TV presenter, 41; Jessica Biel, actress, 38; Camila Cabello, singer, 23.