1318: Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
1748: The ruins of Pompeii are rediscovered by Spaniard Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre.
1873: Birth of composer Sergei Rachmaninoff in Novgorod, Russia.
1891: Painter Paul Gaughin leaves Marseille for Tahiti.
1929: Luis Buñuel releases is experimental 24-minute film “Un Chien Andalou”.
1933: Nazi Germany begins the persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses. On the same day, Scotland beats Ireland, 8-6 at Lansdowne Road, Dublin to win the Home Nations Rugby Championship and Triple Crown.
1937: Aden becomes a British crown colony.
1938: World heavyweight champion Joe Louis KOs Harry Thomas in the fifth round of their title bout in Chicago.
1945: US ground forces invade Okinawa in the largest amphibious assault of the Pacific theatre during the Second World War.
1961: The Beatles began a three-month residency at The Top Ten Club, Hamburg, playing 92 straight nights – seven hours on a weekday and eight at weekends.
1964: John Lennon reunites with his father Freddie after 17 years.
1966: The Troggs recorded Chip Taylor’s ‘Wild Thing’ at Regent Sound Studio in London in one complete take (Take 2). On the same day, John Lennon bought a copy of Timothy Leary’s The Psychedelic Experience and The Tibetan Book Of The Dead, where he read near the beginning of the book’s introduction; “When in doubt, relax, turn off your mind, float downstream,” which captured Lennon’s imagination and became the first line of ‘Tomorrow Never Knows’, (which he recorded 5 days later).
1970: 50 musicians recorded the orchestral scores for The Beatles songs “The Long and Winding Road” and “Across The Universe”. This was done without Paul’s knowledge and he made his opinions clear on what he considered interference in one of his songs in a tersely worded memo.
1974: Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1976: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak found Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs’ parents house in California.
1979: Iran is proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of the Shah.
1984: Soul legend Marvin Gaye was shot dead by his father at his parents’ home after an argument over misplaced business documents
1991: Iran releases British hostage Roger Cooper after five years.
2002: The Netherlands legalizes euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.
2004: Paul Atkinson, guitarist with The Zombies, and later an A&R executive, working for Columbia and RCA discovering and signing ABBA, Bruce Hornsby, Mr. Mister and Judas Priest, died aged 58.
2015: Cynthia Lennon, ex wife of John and mother of Julian, died at her home in Spain following a short battle with cancer.
2017: Bob Dylan finally accepted the 2016 Nobel Prize for literature.
BIRTHDAYS: Ali MacGraw, actress, 81; Annie Nightingale, broadcaster, 80; Jimmy Cliff (James Chambers) reggae artist, 72; Billy Currie, musician (Ultravox) 70; Annette O’Toole, actress, 68; David Gower, former cricketer, 63; Susan Boyle, singer, 59; Philip Schofield, TV presenter, 58; Chris Evans, broadcaster, 54; Beth Tweddle, former gymnast, 35; Ella Eyre, singer, 26.