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43BC: The Battle of Forum Gallorum: Marc Antony besieging Julius Caesar’s assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, who is killed.
1471: Wars of the Roses: Battle of Barnet – Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians and kill the Earl of Warwick.
1536: Henry VIII expropriates minor monasteries.
1741: Emperor Momozomo of Japan is born in Kyoto.
1759: Death of composer George Frideric Handel, aged 74.
1792: France declares war on Austria.
1828: Noah Webster registers the copyright of the first American dictionary for publication.
1841: The first detective novel, Edgar Allen Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue” is published.
1849: Hungary declares itself independent of Austria.
1865: US President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington.
1894: First public showing of Thomas Edison’s kinetoscope.
1912: The RMS Titanic hits an iceberg off Newfoundland.
1915: Turkey invades Armenia.
1936: Singer Édith Piaf is questioned after nightclub owner and her patron Louis Leplée murdered in Paris.
1939: John Steinbeck’s novel “The Grapes of Wrath” is published.
1940: Allied troops land in Norway.
1944: The first Jews transported from Athens arrive at Auschwitz. On the same day, General Dwight D Eisenhower becomes the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force.
1945: US 7th Army & Allies forces capture Nuremberg and Stuttgart in Germany.
1958: Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 with Laika, the first dog in space, aboard burns up during re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere.
1960: Motown is founded by Berry Gordy.
1962: Georges Pompidou becomes Prime Minister of France after the resignation of Michel Debré.
1969: John Lennon and Paul McCartney recorded “The Ballad of John and Yoko” at EMI Studios, Abbey Road. On the same day, Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand share the Oscar for best actress in the first ever tie for The Lion In Winter and Funny Girl respectively.
1972: The Provisional IRA explodes 24 bombs in towns and cities across Northern Ireland.
1973: Acting FBI director L Patrick Gray resigns after admitting he destroyed evidence in the Watergate scandal.
1974: Gary Player wins his second US Masters title.
1978: A Korean Airlines Boeing 707 is fired on by Soviets and crashes in Russia.
1980: Norman Mailer wins the Pulitzer Prize for “Executioner’s Song”. On the same day, Kramer vs Kramer dominates the Oscars, winning the four top awards of best picture, best director (Robert Benton), best actor (Dustin Hoffman) and best actress (Meryl Streep).
1981: The first space shuttle flight, Columbia 1, returns to earth.
1983: The Pretenders bass player Pete Farndon died from a drug overdose. He had been sacked from the band nine months earlier.
1985: Bernhard Langer becomes the first German winner of the US Masters.
1986: Desmond Tutu is elected Anglican Archbishop of Capetown. On the same day, author Simone de Beauvoir dies aged 78.
1991: Ian Woosnam wins his only major title with the US Masters.
1995: Actor, writer and folk singer Burl Ives died of cancer aged 85.
1996: Nick Faldo wins his third US Masters and his sixth and final major tournament.
1999: Singer, songwriter and actor Anthony Newley died of cancer. On the same day, NATO mistakenly bombs a convoy of ethnic Albanian refugees, killing 75.
2000: Metallica file a lawsuit against P2P sharing phenomenon Napster.
2001: Death of Scottish football legend Jim Baxter.
2002: Tiger Woods becomes the third golfer to claim back-to-back US Masters titles. On the same day, Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez returns to office two days after being ousted and arrested by the country’s military.
2003: US troops in Baghdad capture Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the Achille Lauro in 1985.
2007: Silver Birch, ridden by Robbie Power, wins the Grand National at Aintree.
2010: Icelandic Volcano Eyjafjallajökull begins erupting from the top crater in the centre of the glacier.
2014: Percussionist Armando Peraza died of pneumonia at the age of 89. He was a member of the band Santana from 1972 until the early 90s.
2015: Soul singer Percy Sledge died of liver cancer at his home in Baton Rouge aged 73.
2018: US, UK and French forces carry out airstrikes on sites associated with Syria’s chemical weapons program, in response to Douma gas attack
2019: Tiger Woods wins his fifth US Masters and his first major title in 11 years.
BIRTHDAYS: Loretta Lynn, country artist, 88; Julie Christie, actor, 80; John Sergeant, broadcaster/journalist, 76; Ritchie Blackmore, guitarist, (Deep Purple/Rainbow) 75; Sonja Kristina (Shaw), singer (Curved Air) 71; Julian Lloyd Webber, cellist, 69; Peter Capaldi, actor, 62; Robert Carlyle, actor, 59; Gina McKee, actress, 56; Adrien Brody, actor, 47; Sarah Michelle Gellar, actress, 43; Win Butler, musician (Arcade Fire) 40; Abigail Breslin, actress, 24.