1284: Birth of Edward II at Caernarfon Castle, Wales.
1599: Oliver Cromwell is born in Huntingdon.
1607: The Dutch fleet beats the Spanish Portuguese fleet at the Battle f Gibraltar.
1644: The last Ming emperor, Chongzhen hangs himself from a tree on Jing Mountain, Peking, rather than be captured by forces of Li Zicheng.
1660: English Convention Parliament meets and votes to restore Charles II.
1684: Patent granted for the thimble.
1719: Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is published.
1742: Elizabeth of Russia crowns herself Empress in the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow.
1792: The guillotine is first used in France – executes highwayman Nicolas Pelletier.On the same day, “La Marseillaise”, later the national anthem of France, is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.
1829: Charles Fremantle arrives in HMS Challenger off the coast of modern-day Western Australia prior to declaring the Swan River Colony for Britain.
1846: Open conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.
1859: Ground broken for the Suez Canal.
1867: Tokyo opens for foreign trade.
1875: Trinley Gyatso, 12th Dalai Lama, dies at 18.
1881: 250,000 Germans petition to bar foreign Jews from entering Germany.
1914: US President Woodrow Wilson is persuaded by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile to accept mediation in the conflict with Mexico.
1925: Paul von Hindenburg is elected President of Germany.
1926: Giacomo Puccini’s opera “Turandot” premieres in Milan. On the same day, Persian cossack officer Reza Chan crowns himself Shah Palawi.
1942: Beginning of a three-night bombing blitz on Bath by the German Luftwaffe.
1945: Soviet forces complete their encirclement of Berlin, cutting off all access points west of the German capital.
1954: Bell Labs announces the first solar battery made from silicon. It has about 6 per cent efficiency. On the same day, the British raid Nairobi, Kenya and 25,000 Mau Mau suspects are arrested.
1956: Noel Coward’s musical “South Sea Bubble” premieres in London.
1961: Robert Noyce patents the integrated circuit. On the same day, an unmanned Mercury test rocket explodes on the launch pad.
1962: The US Ranger spacecraft crash lands on the Moon.
1971: About 200,000 anti-Vietnam War protesters march on Washington, D.C.
1974: Günter Guillaume, an aide to West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, is exposed as a Stasi spy. On the same day, Portuguese Prime Minister Marcello Caetano is overthrown in the Carnation revolution, bringing the authoritarian Estado Novo government to an end.
1975: Mario Soares’ Socialist Party wins Portugal’s first free election since 1925.
1979: Peace treaty between Israel and Egypt goes into effect.
1980: Announcement of bungled US hostage rescue attempt in Iran.
1983: NASA space probe Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto’s orbit.
1985: The West German Parliament rules it is illegal to deny the Holocaust.
1990: The Fender Stratocaster that Jimi Hendrix played at the Woodstock festival was auctioned off for a record $295,000. On the same day, the Hubble space telescope is placed into orbit by the shuttle Discovery.
1993: Russia elects Boris Yeltsin as leader.
1995: Death of Hollywood legend Ginger Rogers aged 83.
2002: TLC member Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes was killed in a car accident in Honduras, aged 30.
2007: Singer Bobby “Boris” Pickett, who had a ht with “The Monster Mash” died of leukaemia at the age of 69. On the same day, England World Cup footballer Alan Ball died and Boris Yeltsin’s funeral is the first to be sanctioned by the Russian Orthodox Church for a head of state since the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in 1894.
2008: Death of jazz trumpeter and broadcaster Humphrey Lyttleton, aged 86.
2017: Sir Elton John suffered a potentially deadly bacterial infection during a tour, forcing him to spend two nights in intensive care.
2018: Danish inventor Peter Madsen is found guilty of killing and desecrating the body of journalist Kim Wall aboard a submarine. He is sentenced to life imprisonment.
2019: Former US Vice President Joe Biden announces his campaign for president.
BIRTHDAYS: William Roache, actor, 88; Al Pacino, actor, 80; Tony Christie, singer, 77; Bjorn Ulvaeus, guitarist/songwriter (ABBA), 75; Stu Cook, bassist (Credence Clearwater Revival) 75; Talia Shire, actress, 74; Steve Ferrone, drummer, 70; Fish (Derek Dick), singer, 62; Andy Bell, singer (Erasure) 56; Hank Azaria, actor/voiceover artist, 56; Simon Fowler, singer/songwriter (Ocean Colour Scene) 55; Renee Zellweger, actress, 51; Felipe Massa, racing driver, 39; Monty Panesar, cricketer, 38.