1296: The Scots are defeated by Edward I of England at The Battle of Dunbar.
1521: Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by Filipino natives.
1646: Charles I flees Oxford.
1667: Blind and impoverished poet John Milton sells the copyright to “Paradise Lost” for £10.
1749: First performance of Handle’s Music For Fireworks in Green Park, London.
1810: Ludwig van Beethoven composes his piano piece “Für Elise”.
1828: The Zoological Gardens at Regent’s Park open.
1840: The foundation stone for the new Palace of Westminster is laid by Sarah Barry, wife of architect Charles Barry.
1861: US President Abraham Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus. On the same day, West Virginia splits from Virginia after Virginia secedes from the Union.
1891: Birth of composer Sergei Prokofiev in the Ukraine.
1904: Birth of Irish poet Cecil Day-Lewis.
1908: The Olympic Games opens in London.
1940: Heinrich Himmler orders the creation of Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
1943: Polish Resistance fighter Witold Pilecki escapes from Auschwitz after having voluntarily been imprisoned there to gain information about the Holocaust.
1945: Italian partisans capture Benito Mussolini. On the same day, the US 5th army enters Genoa.
1956: World heavyweight boxing champion Rocky Marciano retires undefeated.
1959: Mao Zedong resigns as Chairman of the PRC after the disastrous failure of the Great Leap Forward.
1960: Togo declares independence from French administration.
1961: NASA launches Explorer 11 into Earth orbit to study gamma rays. On the same day, Sierra Leone declares independence from the UK.
1966: The Beatles started recording a John Lennon song ‘I’m Only Sleeping’ for the Revolver album at Abbey Road studios featuring for the first time, a backwards George Harrison solo.
1972: Apollo 16 returns to Earth.
1976: Customs officers on a train at the Russian/Polish Border detained David Bowie after Nazi books and mementos were found in his luggage.
1981: Ringo Starr married actress and former ‘Bond girl’ Barbara Bach.
1982: The trial of John Hinckley begins for the attempted assassination of US President Ronald Reagan.
1986: Soviet authorities order the evacuation of the city of Pripyat (pop. 50,000) one day after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
1987: The US Justice Department bars Austrian Chancellor and former UN General Secretary Kurt Waldheim from entering the country, due to his aid of Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
1989: Students take over Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.
1992: Betty Boothroyd becomes the first woman to be elected Speaker of the House of Commons.
1996: Actor Sean Penn marries actress Robin Wright.
2018: North Korea’s Kim Jong-un and Moon Jae-in of South Korea agree to officially end the Korean war and rid the peninsula of nuclear weapons.
2019: Pope Francis donates $500,000 for migrants stranded in Mexico trying to reach the US.
BIRTHDAYS: Jim Keltner, drummer, 78; Michael Fish, TV weatherman, 76; Ann Peebles, singer/songwriter, 73; Kate Pierson, singer (The B52s), 72; Ace Frehley, guitarist (Kiss), 69; Marco Pirroni, guitarist/songwriter (Adam & The Ants) 61; Sheena Easton, singer, 61; Russell T Davies, TV writer, 57; Willem Alexander, King of The Netherlands, 53; Tommy Smith, jazz saxophonist, 53; Mica Paris, singer/broadcaster, 51; Darcey Bushell, ballerina, 51; Tess Daly, TV presenter, 49; Sally Hawkins, actress, 44; Will Boyd, bassist (Evanescence) 41; Patrick Stump, singer/guitarist (Fallout Boy) 36; Jenna Coleman, actress, 34; Lizzo, (Melissa Jefferson) singer/songwriter, 32.