46BC: Julius Ceasar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus.
1199: Death of Richard I.
1320: Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
1483: Birth of painter Raphael in Urbino, Italy.
1520: Painter Raphael dies on his 37th birthday.
1652: Cape Colony, the first European settlement in South Africa, is established by the Dutch East India Company under Jan van Riebeeck.
1671: Birth of French playwright/poet Jean-Baptiste Rousseau.
1672: France declares war on The Netherlands.
1722: Tsar Peter The Great of Russia ends tax on men with beards.
1757: George II dismisses William Pitt the Elder, Secretary of State for the Southern Department.
1843: William Wordsworth is appointed Poet Laureate by Queen Victoria.
1862: Union forces defeat the Confederacy near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, in the Battle of Shiloh.
1889: George Eastman begins selling his Kodak flexible rolled film.
1893: Andy Bowen and Jack Burke box for 7hrs 19mins to no decision over 111 rounds.
1900: James J Jeffries KOs Jack Finnegan in Round 1 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1909: Robert Peary and Matthew Henson reach the north pole.
1916: German parliament approves unrestricted submarine warfare.
1917: The US declares war on Germany.
1919: Bavaria proclaims itself a soviet republic.
1941: Italian forces holding Addis Ababa surrender to British & Ethiopian forces.
1945: Nazis begin evacuating prisoners from Buchenwald concentration camp. On the same day, the Dutch city of Coevorden is freed from German occupation by Canadian forces.
1952: Sam Snead wins his second green jacket at the US Masters in Augusta.
1958: Golfer Arnold Palmer wins his first of four US Masters titles.
1966: The first session of what would become The Beatles album Revolver started at EMI studios, Abbey Road, with the recording of the basic track of a new John Lennon song ‘Tomorrow Never Knows.’
1967: The first master tape of The Beatles album Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band was made. The song order on side one was different to the final pressing.
1968: Cliff Richard sang ‘Congratulations’ the UK entry in the Eurovision Song Contest held at the Royal Albert Hall London, coming second. On the same day, it was announced that Syd Barrett had left Pink Floyd.
1971: Composer Igor Stravinsky dies aged 88.
1972: Egypt ceases diplomatic relations with Jordan. On the same day, The Scarman Tribunal Report, an inquiry into the causes of violence during the summer of 1969 in N Ireland, is published, finding that the Royal Ulster Constabulary had been seriously at fault.
1973: NASA launches the Pioneer 11 probe to study Jupiter and Saturn.
1974: 200,000 attend rock concert “California Jam” in Ontario, featuring Black Sabbath, Deep Purple and ELP. On the same day, ABBA win the Eurovision Song Contest in Brighton with “Waterloo”.
1975: Death of Chinese political and military leader Chiang Kai-shek aged 87.
1979: Rod Stewart married actor George Hamilton’s ex-wife Alana in Beverly Hills, California.
1985: Singer-songwriter Gilbert O’Sullivan won a lawsuit against his manager Gordon Mills for unpaid royalties and was awarded $2 million.
1991: Diego Maradona is suspended for 15 months by the Italian football league after testing positive for cocaine.
1992: Russian scientist and sci-fi writer Isaac Asimov dies aged 72.
1994: Rwandan Genocide begins with the assassination of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira with their plane being shot down by surface-to-air missiles, abruptly ending peace negotiations.
1996: Actress Greer Garson dies aged 92.
1998: Wendy O. Williams outrageous singer of The Plasmatics died from self-inflicted gunshot wounds. On the same day, country singer Tammy Wynette died aged 55.
2002: France beats Ireland 44-5 at Stade de France, Saint Denis to complete a Grand Slam and win the Six Nations Rugby Championship; their 13th title. On the same day, Jim Culloty wins the Grand National on Bindaree.
2004: Rolandas Paksas becomes the first president of Lithuania to be peacefully removed from the post by impeachment.
2005: Death of Prince Ranier III of Monaco aged 81.
2013: Bayern Munich win their 23rd German Bundesliga title with six games to spare.
2012: Model Heidi Klum divorces singer-songwriter Seal.
2014: Actor Mickey Rooney dies aged 93.
2016: Country singer/songwriter Merle Haggard died of complications from pneumonia at his home in Palo Cedro, California on his 79th birthday.
BIRTHDAYS: Billy Dee Williams, actor, 83; Roy Thinnes, actor, 82; Christopher Franke, musician (Tangerine Dream) 78; Barry Levinson, director, 78; John Ratzenberger, actor, 73; Marilu Henner, actress, 68; Judi Bowker, actress, 66; Rory Bremner, impressionist, 59; Frank Black (Charles Kitteridge Thompson IV) guitarist/singer/songwriter (Pixies) 55; Paul Rudd, actor, 51; Gina Yashere, comedian, 47; Zach Braff, actor/director/writer 45; Myleene Class, pianist/singer, 42.