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991: The English, led by Bryhtnoth, confront a band of inland-raiding Vikings near Maldon in Essex.
1497: Explorer John Cabot tells King Henry VII of his trip to “Asia” (it was North America).
1500: Portuguese captain Diego Diaz is the first European to sight Madagascar.
1653: The English fleet beats Dutch at the Battle of Scheveningen.
1675: Charles II and John Flamsteed lay the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
1759: Carlos III is crowned King of Spain.
1787: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completes his chamber piece “Eine kleine Nachtmusik”.
1792: A large scale insurrection against the French monarchy occurs in Paris.
1793: The Louvre officially opens in Paris as The Museum Central des Arts.
1809: Ecuador declares independence from Spain.
1827: Race riots in Cincinnati.
1893: Rudolph Diesel’s prime model internal combustion engine, a single 10-foot iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany.
1897: German chemist Felix Hoffman first synthesizes acetylsalicylic acid, which would later be patened by his company Bayer under the name “aspirin”. On the same day, the RAC is established.
1907: Prince Scipone Borchesi wins the Beijing to Paris, 7,500 mile auto rally.
1911: The Parliament Act reduces the power of the House of Lords. On the same day, the House of Commons votes on a salary of £400pa for its members.
1920: The Allies recognize Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania. On the same day, the Turkish government renounces its claim to Israel.
1921: Franklin D Roosevelt is stricken with a paralytic illness at his summer home on the Canadian island of Campobello. At the time it was thought to be polio, but could have been Guillain–Barré syndrome.
1942: General Bernard Montgomery is appointed commander of the British 8th Army in North Africa.
1943: Adolf Hitler watches the lynching of captured allied pilots.
1944: Race riots in Athens, Alabama. On the same day, US troops recapture Guam from the Japanese.
1945: Japan announces a willingness to surrender to the Allies, provided Emperor Hirohito’s status remains unchanged.
1949: Ezzard Charles TKOs Gus Lesnevich in Round 8 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1954: Sir Gordon Richards retires as a jockey with a record 4,870 wins.
1959: Four members of The Platters are arrested after a gig in Cincinnati after being found with four 19 year old women in various stages of undress. The scandal resulted in radio stations across the US removing Platters records from their playlists.
1960: Discoverer 13 is launched into orbit and becomes the first object to return from space. On the same day, the Alfred Hitchcock thriller Psycho premieres in LA.
1961: The UK applies for membership of the European Common Market.
1964: The United Nations brokers another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing a growing military crisis and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey. On the same day, Mick Jagger was fined £32 in Liverpool for driving without insurance and breaking the speed limit.
1966: NASA launches Lunar Orbiter 1 to the Moon to photograph the lunar surface. On the same day, the only known case of a meteor entering Earth’s atmosphere and leaving it again.
1968: Race riots in Miami, Chicago and Little Rock, Arkensas.
1970: Elvis Presley plays the first night of a four-week engagement at The International Hotel in Las Vegas. On the same day, Jim Morrison’s trial for “lewd and lascivious behavior” begins in Miami and Home Secretary Reginald Maulding threatens to impose direct rule on Northern Ireland if the agreed reform measures are not carried out.
1971: During the internment round-up operation in west Belfast, the Parachute Regiment kills 11 unarmed civilians in what became known as the Ballymurphy massacre.
1972: Paul and Linda McCartney were arrested in Sweden for possession of drugs. On the same day, Finland’s Lasse Virén wraps up the 5,000/10,000m double at the Munich Olympics.
1975: Jack Nicklaus wins the PGA Championship. On the same day, David Frost purchases exclusive rights to interview Richard Nixon.
1976: A Provisional IRA volunteer is shot dead by the British Army as he drove out of control through Belfast and killed three children.
1977: The Queen visits Northern Ireland for the first time in 11 years as part of her Silver Jubilee tour. On the same day, postal employee David Berkowitz arrested in Yonkers NY, accused of being the serial killer “Son of Sam”.
1980: Singles chart:
- The Winner Takes It All – ABBA
- Upside Down – Diana Ross
- 9 To 5 – Sheena Easton
- Ashes To Ashes – David Bowie
- Oh Ywah (On The Radio) – Roxy Music
- Oops Upside Your Head – The Gap Band
- Give Me The Night – George Benson
- More Than I Can Say – Leo Sayer
- Use It Up And Wear It Out – Odyssey
- Funkin’ For Jamaica – Tom Browne
- Back In Black – AC/DC
- Flesh And Blood – Roxy Music
- Glory Road – Gillan
- Deepest Purple – Deep Purple
- Give Me The Night – George Benson
- Off The Wall – Michael Jackson
- Xanadu – Original Soundtrack
- Searching For The Young Soul Rebels – Dexys Midnight Runners
- Kaleidoscope – Siouxsie and The Banshees
- Sky 2 – Sky
1984: Mary Decker and Zola Budd collide during the 3,000m at the LA Olympics.
1985: Simon Le Bon from Duran Duran was air lifted to safety when his yacht ‘Drum’ overturned while racing off the English coast. On the same day, Michael Jackson buys ATV Music, which includes The Beatles catalogue, for $47million.
1987: Soul singer Wilson Pickett was found guilty by a New Jersey court of possessing a shotgun with intent to endanger life following his involvement in a fist fight in a bar.
1988: Scientists fear a disease which has killed more than 6,000 seals in the North Sea and the Baltic has reached British waters.
1990: NASA space probe Magellan arrives at Venus after a 15-month journey from Earth and begins its mission to map the planet. On the same day, more than 127 Muslims are massacred in North East Sri Lanka by paramilitaries.
1993: An earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter Scale hits the South Island of New Zealand.
1994: The last British troops leave Hong Kong after 153 years.
1999: Guitarist Paul “Bonehead” Arthurs quit Oasis.
2001: Former Conservative MP Neil Hamilton and wife Christine strenuously deny allegations they carried out a serious sexual assault. On the same day, the US and UK reject a proposal by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to permit the Iraqi government to use $1billion per year to fund infrastructure improvements and increase oil production capacity.
2002: Lisa Marie Presley married actor Nicolas Cage at a resort in Hawaii.
2006: Scotland Yard disrupts a major terrorist plot to destroy aircraft travelling from the UK to the US. All toiletries are banned from commercial aircraft.
2007: Tony Wilson, the UK music mogul behind some of Manchester’s most successful bands died aged 57 after suffering from kidney cancer. On the same day, Spice Girl Emma Bunton gave birth to a baby boy called Beau at London’s private Portland Hospital.
2008: Singer-songwriter Isaac Hayes died at his home in Memphis aged 65.
2013: Singer Eydie Gorme dies at the age of 84. On the same day, the Athletics World Championships open at Moscow.
2014: Rory McIlroy wins the PGA Championship.
2017: US President Donald Trump declares opioid addiction a national emergency. On the same day, Taylor Swift testifies in court in Denver that DJ David Mueller groped her while they posed for a photograph and a100 year-old fruit cake by Huntley & Palmers is deemed “almost eatable” after being discovered in a hut used by Captain Robert Scott’s expedition in Antarctica.
2018: Omarosa Manigault Newman, former aide to US President Donald Trump, releases taped recordings of her firing from The White House.
2019: Financier Jeffrey Epstein is found dead in his jail cell in New York, while awaiting trail for sex trafficking charges.
BIRTHDAYS: Rhonda Fleming, actress, 97; Baroness Butler-Sloss, retired judge, 87; Anita Lonsbrough, swimmer, 79; Ian Anderson, singer-songwriter/flautist/guitarist (Jethro Tull) 73; Ronnie Spector (Veronica Bennett), singer, 73; Patti Austin, singer, 72; Diane Venora, actress, 68; Rosanna Arquette, actress, 61; Antonio Banderas, actor, 60; Jon Farriss drummer, (INXS) 59; Julia Fordham, singer-songwriter, 58; Suzanne Collins, author, 58; Riddick Bowe, boxer, 53; Leigh Marklew, bassist, (Terrorvision) 52; Roy Keane, soccer pundit, 49; Justin Theroux, actor, 49; Lawrence Dallaglio, former rugby player, 48; Devon Aoki, model/actress, 38; Kylie Jenner, model/reality TV star, 33.