1040: King Duncan I of Scotland is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth.
1498: Christopher Columbus lands at the mouth of the Orinoco River in what is now Venezuela.
1585: Elizabeth I refuses sovereignty of the Netherlands.
1678: The French repulse William of Orange at the Battle of Mons.
1762: The English fleet occupies Havana, Cuba.
1816: Britain annexes Tristan da Cunha.
1851: Birth of John Henry “Doc” Holliday in Georgia, US.
1861: Martial Law is declared at St Louis, Missouri, due to pro-secession sentiment which surged throughout Missouri after the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.
1867: Birth of author John Galsworthy in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey.
1880: Construction of Cologne Cathedral is finally completed after it began in 1248.
1882: Queen Victoria receives Zulu chief Cetewayo.
1885: The Criminal Law Amendment Act raises the age of consent from 13 to 16, protecting against child prostitution.
1888: Birth of inventor of television, John Logie Baird.
1903: James J Jeffries KOs James J Corbett in Round 10 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1908: Race riot in Springfield, Illinois.
1912: US marines invade Nicaragua.
1917: China declares war on Germany and Austria.
1920: The Olympic Games open in Antwerp, Belgium.
1932: The Olympic Games close in LA.
1936: Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last public execution in the US.
1937: China declares war on Japan.
1941: German spy Josef Jakobs is executed in the Tower of London.
1942: General Dwight D Eisenhower is named commander for the invasion of North Africa.
1943: The first allied air raid on Borneo.
1944: Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives at Corsica.
1945: Japan surrenders unconditionally to end the Second World War. On the same day, Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh movement launches a coordinated uprising against French rule across Vietnam.
1947: Pakistan gains independence from Britain.
1948: The Olympic Games close in London.
1949: Military coup in Syria under colonel Sami Hinnawi.
1956: German poet and playwright, Bertolt Brecht dies from a heart attack at 58.
1958: Death of blues artist Big Bill Broonzy. aged 65.
1960: Jack Brabham clinches his second consecutive Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by winning the Portuguese Grand Prix at Boavista.
1962: Beatles manager Brian Epstein, along with John Lennon, Paul McCartney and George Harrison decided to sack drummer Pete Best. He played his last gig with them the following night at The Cavern, Liverpool. On the same day, a US mail truck in Plymouth, Massachusetts, is robbed of more than $1.5 million.
1964: Singer Johnny Burnette was killed in a boating accident on Clear Lake California, aged 30.
1965: Actress Jane Fonda marries director Roger Vadim in Las Vegas.
1967: All UK offshore pirate radio stations, with the exception of Radio Caroline which continued to broadcast until the following March, were closed down when the Marine Broadcasting Act came into force. On the same day, celebrity hairdresser Vidal Sassoon supposedly cuts actress Mia Farrow’s hair into the famous pixie cut, costing $5,000. In reality, it was a publicity stunt as Farrow had previously cut her own hair.
1969: The government sends troops into Northern Ireland in what it says is a “limited operation” to restore law and order.
1970: Stephen Stills was arrested on suspected drugs charges while staying at a San Diego Hotel after being found crawling along a corridor in an incoherent state. On the same day, the three-day Yorkshire Folk, Blues & Jazz Festival began at Krumlin featuring Atomic Rooster, The Kinks, Elton John, Mungo Jerry, Yes and The Groundhogs.
1971: Bahrain proclaims independence from Britain.
1972: A Catholic civilian is shot dead during an IRA attack on a British Army patrol in Belfast.
1974: The Turkish army attacks Nicosia, Cyprus.
1975: Pakistani military coup against Bangladeshi President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
1976: 10,000 women demonstrate for peace in Belfast.
1977: Singles chart:
- Angelo – The Brotherhood of Man
- You Got What It Takes – Showaddywaddy
- I Feel Love – Donna Summer
- Float On – The Floaters
- It’s Your Life – Smokie
- The Crunch – The Rah Band
- Ma Baker – Boney M
- We’re All Alone – Rita Coolidge
- Something Better Change – The Stranglers
- That’s What Friends Are For – Deniece Williams
1979: Dozens of yachts are lost and at least three people killed after a freak storm blows during the Fastnet yacht race in the Irish Sea.
1980: Shipyard workers in Gdansk, Poland, strike in protest over the dismissal of a trade union activist, marking the beginning of the Solidarity movement.
1984: Death of novelist J B Priestly aged 89.
1986: Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto is arrested.
1988: Singer, poet and frontman of Hawkwind, Robert Calvert, died of a heart attack. On the same day, guitarist Roy Buchanan died from hanging himself with his own shirt in Fairfax County Adult Detention Centre after being arrested for drunkenness. Also, Italian sportscar manufacturer Enzo Ferrari dies aged 90.
1989: South African President P W Botha resigns.
1992: Tony Williams, lead singer with The Platters died in his sleep of emphysema aged 64.
1994: Terrorist Carlos the Jackal is arrested in Khartoum, Sudan.
1997: Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh is formally sentenced to death by the Oklahoma Court of Appeals.
2001: A pizza-stained piece of paper signed by three of The Beatles sold for $48,000 (£17,441) to an anonymous collector at an auction in Melbourne.
2003: Massive power failures cause chaos across the eastern United States and Canada.
2006: Boy George was seen sweeping streets in New York as part of a five-day community service sentence.
2007: Coordinated bombings in Yazidi communities in Iraq kill at least 500 people – the second-deadliest terror attack of all time.
2008: Singer Lita Roza dies in Liverpool aged 82.
2011: Album chart:
- Back To Black – Amy Winehouse
- 21 – Adele
- Watch The Throne – Jay Z & Kanye West
- Frank – Amy Winehouse
- 19 – Adele
- 4 – Beyonce
- Best Of – Randy Crawford
- Doo-Wops and Hooligans – Bruno Mars
- Born This Way – Lady Gaga
- Who You Are – Jessie J
2015: Record producer Bob Johnston died aged 83. On the same day, Jazz Summers, manager of bands such as Wham!, Snow Patrol, Scissor Sisters and The Verve, died from lung cancer. Also, the most extensive face transplant surgery ever performed was carried out on Patrick Hardison by Dr. Eduardo Rodriguez at New York University Langone Medical Centre.
2016: Usain Bolt wins the 100m at the Rio Olympics, becoming the first man to win the event three times. On the same day, Jason Kenny wins cycling sprint gold for Britain and Andy Murray wins the tennis.
2017: A parliamentary citizenship scandal deepens in Australia after Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce is revealed to be a New Zealand citizen.
2018: A Pennsylvania grand jury alleges 300 “predator priests” abused over 1000 children over 30 years and Catholic leaders covered it up. On the same day, singer Jill Janus committed suicide age 42.
2019: Stephanie Frappart of France is the first woman to referee a major match in a European men’s tournament – the UEFA Super Cup tie Chelsea vs Liverpool in Istanbul.
BIRTHDAYS: David Crosby, singer-songwriter, 79; Steve Martin, comedian/writer, 75; Wim Wenders, director, 75; Antonio Fargas, actor, 74; Larry Graham, bassist (Graham Central Station/Sly & The Family Stone) 74; Danielle Steel, author, 73; Maddy Prior, singer (Steeleye Span) 73; Bruce Thomas, bassist (Elvis Costello & The Attractions) 72; Slim Dunlap, guitarist/songwriter (The Replacements) 69; Carl Lumbly, actor, 69; Earvin “Magic” Johnson, basketball legend, 61; Marcia Gay Harden, actress, ,61; Sarah Brightman, singer, 59; Mark Collins, guitarist, (The Charlatans) 55; Emmanuelle Seigner, actress, 55; Tanya Donelly, guitarist/singer-songwriter (Belly/Throwing Muses) 54; Halle Berry, actress, 54; Adrian Lester, actor, 52; Jay-Jay Okocha, former footballer, 47; Ana Matronic, (Ana Lynch), vocals, (Scissor Sisters) 46; Mila Kunis, actress, 37; Nick Grimshaw, broadcaster, 36; Myles Kellock, musician (Blossoms) 26.