1482: Death of Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI aged 52.
1530: Birth of Ivan the Terrible, first tsar of Russia.
1609: Galileo demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1688: Death of Welsh pirate Henry Morgan aged 53.
1768: Captain James Cook departs from Plymouth on his first voyage aboard the Endeavour.
1804: Alicia Thornton becomes the first female jockey in England.
1814: British forces destroy the US Library of Congress in Washington DC, containing 3,000 books.
1819: Death of inventor James Watt aged 83.
1822: Astronomer William Herschel , who discovered Uranus, dies aged 83.
1825: Uruguay declares independence from Brazil.
1829: US President Andrew Jackson makes an offer to buy Texas, but the Mexican government refuses.
1867: Death of scientist Michael Faraday, aged 75.
1870: Composer Richard Wagner marries Franz Listz’s daughter Cosima in Switzerland.
1875: Captain Matthew Webb completes the first observed solo swim across the English Channel in 21 hours and 45 minutes.
1894: Japanese scientist Shibasaburo Kitasato discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague.
1900: Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche dies aged 55.
1904: James J Jeffries scores a second round TKO win over Jack Munroe in defence of his world boxing title.
1908: Death of physicist Henri Becquerel (discovered radioactivity) aged 55.
1914: German Zeppelins bomb Antwerp. German troops in occupied Belgium begin the six-week “Sack of Louvain,” destroying historical buildings and killing hundreds of civilians. On the same day, German troops march into France.
1917: Robert Lindley Murray beats Nathaniel W. Niles 5-7, 8-6, 6-3, 6-3 in the US National Tennis Championships at Forest Hills, New York.
1919: Start of the first scheduled passenger service by airplane (Paris-London).
1920: Russia suffers a final decisive defeat against Poland in the Battle of Warsaw.
1921: The US signs a peace treaty with Germany.
1937: The Japanese fleet blockades the Chinese coast.
1940: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are incorporated into the Soviet Union.
1941: British and Soviet troops attack pro-Germany Iran. On the same day, singer Billie Holiday marries trombonist Jimmy Monroe.
1943: Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten is appointed Supreme Allied Commander in SE Asia.
1944: French and US troops liberate Paris from Nazi occupation.
1946: Ben Hogan wins the PGA Golf Championship.
1950: Sugar Ray Robinson KOs Jose Basora to win the middleweight boxing title.
1955: The last Soviet forces leave Austria.
1960: The Olympic Games open in Rome.
1967: The leader of the American Nazi party, George Lincoln Rockwell, is shot dead by a sniper at a shopping centre in Arlington, Virginia. On the same day, The Beatles go to Wales to study transcendental meditation with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. A policeman mistakes Cynthia Lennon for a fan and prevents her from getting on the train.
1970: Elton John made his US live debut when he performed at The Troubadour in LA. In the audience that night were Don Henley, Quincy Jones and Leon Russell.
1971: Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party Gerry Fitt presents a number of allegations of brutality by the security forces in Northern Ireland to representatives of the UN.
1984: Author Truman Capote dies from liver cancer aged 59.
1985: Singles chart:
- I Got You Babe – UB40 ft Chrissie Hynde
- Into The Groove – Madonna
- Running Up That Hill – Kate Bush
- Drive – The Cars
- Tarzan Boy – Baltimora
- Holiday – Madonna
- Say I’m Your Number One – Princess
- Money For Nothing – Dire Straits
- Alone Without You – King
- We Don’t Need Another Hero – Tina Turner
- Now That’s What I Call Music 5 – Various Artists
- Like A Virgin – Madonna
- Brothers In Arms – Dire Straits
- No Jacket Required – Phil Collins
- Born In The USA – Bruce Springsteen
- Madonna – Madonna
- Songs From The Big Chair – Tears For Fears
- Be Yourself Tonight – Eurythmics
- The Kenny Rogers Story – Kenny Rogers
- Private Dancer – Tina Turner
1988: Iran and Iraq begin talks to end their eight-year war.
1989: Voyager 2 sends back the first close-up pictures of Neptune and its satellite planets.
1990: The UN security council authorizes military action against Iraq.
1993: Snoop Doggy Dogg was released on $1million bail after being accused of being involved with the murder of a member of the By Yerself gang during a shooting in Los Angeles. He was acquitted in 1996.
1997: A court in Berlin sentences former East German leader, Egon Krenz, to six-and-a-half years in prison for instigating the shoot to kill policy carried out by border guards on the Berlin Wall.
1999: Rob Fisher of duo Climie Fisher died of cancer aged 39.
2000: Film score composer and record producer Jack Nitzsche died of a heart attack.
2001: Singer/actress Aaliyah was killed in a plane crash in the Bahamas aged 22.
2003: Two car bombs explode within minutes of each other in Bombay, killing 44 and injuring almost 150.
2006: Former Ukrainian prime minister Pavlo Lazarenko is sentenced to nine years in prison for money laundering, wire fraud, and extortion.
2012: Voyager 1 becomes the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space. On the same day, astronaut Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon, dies aged 82.
2017: US President Donald Trump grants a presidential pardon to Joe Arpaio, who had been convicted of contempt of court for racial profiling. On the same day, Indian spiritual leader Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh is convicted of raping two of his followers in Panchkula.
2018: Afghan Islamic State leader Abu Saad Erhabi and 10 others are killed in an air strike in the province of Nangarhar.
BIRTHDAYS: Sean Connery, actor, 90; Wayne Shorter, jazz saxophonist, 87; Tom Skerritt, actor, 87; Anne Archer, actress, 73; Gene Simmons (Chaim Weitz) bassist (Kiss) 71; Martin Amis, novelist, 71; Rob Halford, singer (Judas Priest) 69; Geoff Downes, keyboards (Buggles/Asia/Yes) 68; Elvis Costello, (Declan McManus), singer-songwriter, 66; Matt Aitken, songwriter/producer, 64; Tim Burton, director, 62; Billy Ray Cyrus, country singer, 59; Joanne Whalley, actress, 58; Vivian Campbell, guitarist (Def Leppard) 58; Candida Doyle, keyboards (Pulp) 57; Blair Underwood, actor, 56; Erik Dahlgren, drummer (The Wannadies) 55; Derek Sherinian, keyboards (Dream Theatre) 54; Jeff Tweedy, singer-songwriter (Wilco) 53; Claudia Schiffer, supermodel, 50; Alexander Skarsgård, actor, 44; Marlon Harewood, former footballer, 41; Rachel Bilson, actress, 39; Amy MacDonald, singer-songwriter, 33; Blake Lively (Reynolds), actress, 33; Ray Quinn, actor/singer, 32; Alexandra Burke, singer, 32; Holly Gibbs, actress, 23.