1549: John Dudley Earl of Warwick destroys Robert Kett’s army at the Battle of Dussindale, ending Kett’s rebellion in Norfolk.
1610: Polish King Wladyslaw is crowned king of Russia.
1776: The British defeat Americans in the Battle of Long Island.
1783: The first unmanned hydrogen balloon flight reaches an altitude of 900m.
1798: The French army and Irish rebels rout a larger British force at the Battle of Castlebar in Ireland.
1799: A British invasion army lands in North Holland.
1813: Napoleon’s forces defeat Austria at the Battle of Dresden.
1883: The volcano Krakatoa, west of Java in Indonesia, erupts with a force of 1,300 megatons and kills approximately 40,000 people.
1892: The Metropolitan Opera House in New York catches fire.
1896: Britain defeats Zanzibar in the shortest recorded war in history (38 minutes). On the same day, Soviet electronic musical instruments inventor Leon Theremin is born.
1899: Birth of novelist C. S. Forester.
1913: Lt Pyotr Nesterov, of the Imperial Russian Air Service, performs the first acrobatic manoeuvre in an airplane (a loop) at Kiev.
1916: Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1918: Spanish flu arrives in Boston, beginning the second and deadliest wave of the virus in the US.
1932: 200,000 English textile workers go on strike.
1941: The Shah of Iran Rezā Shāh Pahlavi abdicates the throne in favour of his son Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi.
1942: Cuba declares war on Germany, Japan and Italy.
1944: 200 RAF Halifax bombers attack oil installations in Hamburg.
1945: US troops land in Japan after Japanese surrender.
1950: The BBC transmits the first ever live television pictures across the Channel with a programme from Calais..
1952: Emil Zatopek wins the Olympic marathon in Helsinki.
1955: The Guinness Book of World Records is first published.
1956: Socialite Gloria Vanderbilt marries director Sidney Lumet.
1960: British swimmer Anita Lonsbrough breaks the world record for the 200m to win gold at the Olympic Games in Rome.
1965: The Beatles meet Elvis Presley at his mansion. The uncomfortable encounter prompted John Lennon to say later: “Where’s Elvis?”
1966: Yachtsman Francis Chichester begins 1the first solo voyage around the world. On the same day, a race riot breaks out in Waukegan, Illinois.
1967: Beatles manager Brian Epstein is found dead at his home in Belgravia, aged 32. In shock, The Beatles cut short their retreat in Wales with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and arrange to return to London.
1972: The US bombs Haiphong in North Vietnam.
1975: Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari Makonnen) former Emperor of Ethiopia, dies of suspected assassination by strangulation at 83.
1976: Transsexual Renee Richards is barred from competing in the US Tennis Open.
1978: Actor Robert Shaw dies from a heart attack aged 51.
1979: The Queen’s cousin, Lord Louis Mountbatten, is killed by an IRA bomb blast on his boat in Ireland. His 14-year old grandson is also killed. On the same day, 18 British soldiers are killed in two booby-trap bomb attacks at Warrenpoint, South Down, close to the border with the Irish Republic.
1984: Coronation Street actor Bernard Youens dies from a heart attack at 69.
1985: Mary Joe Fernández at 14 years 8 days old becomes the youngest player to win at the US Tennis Open when she beats England’s Sara Gomer 6-1, 6-4 in a first round match. On the same day, General Ibrahim Babangida overthrows Major General Muhammadu Buhari’s regime in Nigeria.
1986: “The Golden Girls” and “Cagney & Lacey” dominate the Emmy Awards. On the same day, protests erupt in Soweto, South Africa, against evictions carried out after an 11-week rent boycott.
1987: Robert Maclennan MP succeeds David Owen as leader of the SDP.
1990: Ernest Saunders, Gerald Ronson, Sir Jack Lyons and Anthony Parnes are convicted for their involvement in a conspiracy to drive up the price of shares in Guinness during a 1986 takeover battle for the distillery. On the same day, guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan was killed aged 35 when the helicopter he was flying in, hit a man-made ski slope while trying to navigate through dense fog.
1991: Moldavia declares independence from the USSR.
1995: Singles chart:
- Country House – Blur
- Roll With It – Oasis
- You Are Not Alone – Michael Jackson
- I Luv U Baby – Original
- The Sunshine After The Rain – Berri
- I’ll Be There For You – The Rembrandts
- Waterfalls – TLC
- Never Forget – Take That
- Hideaway – De Lacy
- Everybody – Clock
- Said And Done – Boyzone
- Stanley Road – Paul Weller
- It’s Great When You’re Straight…Yeah – Black Grape
- I Should Coco – Supergrass
- The Best Of – New Order
- Definitely Maybe – Oasis
- Parklife Blur
- Seal II – Seal
- Crazysexycool – TLC
- Nobody Else – Take That
1999: The Charlatans, Blur, Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Offspring, Catatonia, Reef, The Chemical Brothers, The Divine Comedy, Pavement and The Jon Spencer Blues Explosion appeared at the three-day Reading Festival.
2000: The 540m Ostankino Tower in Moscow catches fire. Three people die.
2001: Angelina Jolie is named a UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador in Geneva.
2003: Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years.
2008: Barack Obama becomes the first African-American to be nominated by a major political party for President of the United States. On the same day, The Wrestler” directed by Darren Aronofsky and starring Mickey Rourke wins the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival.
2013: Miley Cyrus’s risque performance with Robin Thicke at the MTV VMA Awards draws complaints from a parenting pressure group in the US.
2014: Medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) calls the international response to Ebola “irresponsible” and “slow and derisory”.
2018: The UN releases a report saying Myanmar military leaders should face genocide and crimes against humanity charges for violence at Rohingya.
2019: Race car driver Jessi Combs dies while setting new fastest women’s land speed record of 522.783 mph at Alvord Desert, Oregon.
BIRTHDAYS: Lady Antonia Fraser, author, 88; Phil Shulman, musician (Gentle Giant) 83; Chip Douglas, songwriter/producer/musician (The Turtles) 78; Tuesday (Susan) Weld, actress, 77; Tim Bogert, bassist (Vanilla Fudge) 76; Barbara Bach, actress, 73; Alex Lifeson, guitarist, (Rush) 67; Derek Warwick, racing driver, 66; John Lloyd, tennis star, 66; Glen Matlock, bassist (The Sex Pistols) 64; Bernhard Langer, golfer, 63; Gerhard Berger, racing driver, 61; Tom Ford, fashion designer, 59; Cesar Millan, dog whisperer, 51; Chandra Wilson, actress, 51; Peter Ebdon, snooker player, 50; Denise Lewis, heptathlete, 48; Dietmar Hamann, German footballer, 47; Sarah Chalke, actress, 43; Sarah Neufeld, violinist (Arcade Fire) 41; Aaron Paul, actor, 39.