1261: Jacques Pantaleon is elected as Pope Urban IV.
1350: The English fleet under Edward III defeats a Castilian fleet of 40 ships at the Battle of Winchelsea.
1526: The Hungarian Empire is conquered by the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent.
1640: Charles I signs a peace treaty with Scotland.
1708: British troops occupy Menorca and Sardinia.
1793: Slaves in Haiti are freed.
1799: Death of Pope PiusVI.
1831: Michael Faraday demonstrates the first electric transformer.
1833: Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act becomes law.
1842: Britain and China sign the Treaty of Nanking, ending the Opium War.
1862: The Second Battle of Bull Run, fought in Manassas, Virginia begins.
1864: William Huggins discovers the chemical composition of nebulae.
1883: Seismic sea waves created by the eruption of Krakatoa create a rise in the English Channel 32 hours after the explosion.
1885: Gottlieb Daimler receives the German patent for a motorcycle. On the same day, boxing’s first heavyweight title fight with 3-oz gloves and 3-minute rounds takes place between John L Sullivan and Dominick McCaffrey.
1896: Chop suey is invented in New York City by the chef of the visiting Chinese Ambassador.
1898: The Goodyear tyre company is founded.
1900: Gaetano Bresci, the assassin of King Umberto I of Italy, is tried and sentenced to life imprisonment.
1914: New Zealand forces capture German Samoa.
1916: Paul von Hindenburg replaces Von Falkenhayn as German chief of staff.
1920: Birth of jazz saxophonist, Charlie Parker in Kansas.
1929: Aviator Anne Morrow Lindbergh makes her first solo flight.
1941: The German Einsatzkommando in Russia kills 1,469 Jewish children.
1943: The Danish Navy scuttles its warships so as not to be taken by Germany.
1945: The British liberate Hong Kong from Japan.
1950: British troops arrive in Korea to bolster the American presence there. On the same day, the International Olympic Committee votes to admit West Germany and Japan in 1952.
1953: The USSR detonates its first hydrogen bomb.
1958: George Harrison joins The Quarrymen after auditioning for John Lennon on the top deck of a Liverpool bus by playing the Link Wray song Raunchy.
- When – The Kalin Twins
- All I Have To Do Is Dream – The Everly Brothers
- Return To Me – Dean Martin
- Endless Sleep – Marty Wilde
- Tulips From Amsterdam – Max Bygraves
- Stupid Cupid – Connie Francis
- Hard Headed Woman – Elvis Presley
- Fever – Peggy Lee
- Patricia – Perez Prez Prado
- Rave On – Buddy Holly
1960: Jordan’s premier Hazza-el-Madjali is fatally injured in a bomb attack. On the same day, Dawn Fraser wins the 100m freestyle gold medal at the Rome Olympics.
1965: Gemini V returns to earth after almost eight days in orbit.
1966: The Beatles play their last concert before a paying audience at Candlestick Park in San Francisco to a sell-out crowd of 25,000.
1967: The final TV episode of “The Fugitive” starring David Janssen is watched by an American audience of 78 million people.
1974: More than 200 people are arrested following disturbances at a rock festival in Windsor Great Park, Berkshire.
1975: Death of former Irish president Eamon de Valera aged 92.
1976: Jimmy Reed, a major influence on the Rolling Stones, dies following an epileptic seizure just before his 51st birthday. On the same day, The Clash, The sex Pistols and The Buzzcocks appear at a showcase event at The Screen On The Green, Islington.
1977:Three people were arrested in Memphis after trying to steal Elvis Presley’s body.
1981: The two day Rock on the Tyne festival began in Gateshead, featuring Ian Dury, Elvis Costello, U2, Rory Gallagher, Lindisfarne and Dr Feelgood.
1982: Hollywood star Ingrid Bergman dies on her 67th birthday.
1986: Britain’s oldest twins May and Marjorie Chavasse celebrate their 100th birthday.
1987: Actor Lee Marvin dies of a heart attack aged 63.
1990: Elton John checks into a rehab center in Chicago to receive treatment for bulimia, alcoholism and drugs.
1992: A protest march in Rostock, Germany, against attacks by neo nazis on refugees ends in violence after demonstrators clash with police.
2003: Ayatollah Sayed Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, the Shia Muslim leader in Iraq, is assassinated in a terrorist bombing, along with nearly 100 worshippers as they leave a mosque in Najaf.
2004: Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher clinches his fifth straight Formula 1 World Drivers Championship with a second place in the Belgian Grand Prix.
2005: Hurricane Katrina lashes New Orleans with high winds and torrential rain, cutting power and flooding up to 80 per cent of the city when defensive levees are breached (or, as some claim, deliberately breached to save more affluent areas).
2009: The LA coroner confirms Michael Jackson’s death was homicide, primarily caused by the powerful anaesthetic Propofol and the sedative Lorazepam. On the same day, Cristiano Ronaldo makes his debut for Real Madrid.
2010: Album chart:
- Recovery – Eminem
- The Defamation Of Strickland Banks – Plan B
- The Final Frontier – Iron Maiden
- The Suburbs – Arcade Fire
- Eliza Doolittle – Eliza Doolittle
- The Fame – Lady Gaga
- Sigh No More – Mumford & Sons
- Headlines – The Saturdays
- Crazy Love – Michael Buble
- Surfing The Void – The Klaxons
2012: The USADA strips drugs cheat Lance Armstrong of his seven Tour de France titles.
2014: Riots break out in Guinea following rumours that health workers are deliberately transmitting the Ebola virus to locals.
2016: Death of actor/writer Gene Wilder aged 83.
2018: Germany hands back human remains of Namibian Herero and Nama people murdered during 1904-08 genocide at church service in Berlin. On the same day, former Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond resigns from the Scottish National Party amid sexual abuse allegations.
BIRTHDAYS: William Friedkin, director/screenwriter, 86; Elliott Gould, actor, 832; Dick Halligan, keyboards/trombonist (Blood Sweat & Tears) 78; Bob Beamon, athlete, 75; Diamanda Galás, singer/composer, 66; Elizabeth Fraser, singer (Cocteau Twins) 63; Sir Lenny Henry, comedian/actor, 63; Mick Harvey, guitarist (The Bad Seeds) 63; Rebecca De Mornay, actress, 62; Eddi Reader, singer, 62; Steve Clarke, football manager, 58; Carla Gugino, actress, 50; Thomas Tuchel, Chelsea manager, 48; Jay Ryan, actor, 40; Lea Michele, actress/singer, 35; Charlotte Ritchie, actress, 32; Patrick van Aanholt, footballer, 31; Liam Payne, singer (One Direction) 28; Ainsley Maitland-Niles, footballer, 24.