1420: Henry V enters Paris.
1521: Death of Pope Leo X.
1640: Portugal regains independence after 60 years of Spanish rule.
1783: Jacques Charles and Nicolas Roberts make first untethered ascension with gas hydrogen balloon in Paris.
1821: Santo Domingo proclaims independence from Spain.
1887: Sherlock Holmes appears in print for the first time in A Study In Scarlett by Arthur Conan Doyle.
1903: The first Western film “The Great Train Robbery” is released in the US.
1913: Ford Motor Company institutes the world’s first moving assembly line for the Model T Ford .
1918: Yugoslavia declares independence and a monarchy established.
1929: Bingo is invented by Edwin S Lowe.
1934: Leningrad mayor Sergey Kirov is assassinated and Stalin uses it as an excuse to begin his Great Purge of 1934-38.
1939: Himmler begins the deportation of Polish Jews from Germany.
1941: Japanese Emperor Hirohito signs declaration of war.
1942: The Beveridge Report is published by the government unveiling plans for a post-war welfare state.
1943: At the end of the Tehran Conference, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt agree that the invasion of Normandy should take place in May 1944.
1944: Prokofjev’s 8th Piano sonata and Bartok’s Concerto for orchestra have their premieres.
1947: Death of occultist Aleister Crowley aged 72.
1948: The Arabic Congress names Abdullah of Trans Jordan as King of Palestine.
1951: Benjamin Britten’s opera “Billy Budd” premieres in London.
1953: Hugh Hefner publishes the first edition of Playboy magazine, featuring Marilyn Monroe as the centrefold.
1955: Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to move to the back of a bus and give her seat to a white passenger in Montgomery, Alabama.
1956: Legendary Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser sets a world record 1:02.0 to win the women’s 100m freestyle at the Melbourne Olympics.
1959: The first colour photograph of Earth received from outer space.
1960: Paul McCartney and Pete Best of The Beatles are deported from German after an accusation of attempted arson in Hamburg.
1965: South Africa’s government says children of white fathers are white.
1973: Death of founding father of Israel David Ben-Gurion aged 87.
1975: US President Gerald Ford visits China.
1976: The Sex Pistols appeared on ITV’s live early evening ‘Today’ show. Taunted by interviewer Bill Grundy who asked the band to say something outrageous, guitarist Steve Jones swore three times. Grundy was sacked as a consequence.
1984: Chris Evert wins her 1,000th professional tennis match.
1988: Pakistan’s Benazir Bhutto becomes the first female Prime Minister of a Muslim country.
1989: Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meets with Pope John Paul II at The Vatican.
1990: British and French workers meet in the Channel tunnel.
1991: Ukrainian people vote for independence.
1997: Death of jazz violinist Stephane Grappelli aged 89.
1999: Rapper Jay-Z stabs record executive Lance “Un” Rivera at a night club in New York.
2009: Lionel Messi wins the Ballon d’Or.
2016: Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn is declared King of Thailand. On the same day, the UN UN admits its peacekeepers were responsible for a cholera epidemic in Haiti in 2010 that killed 30,000.
2017: President Trump’s former national security adviser Michael Flynn pleads guilty to lying to the FBI.
BIRTHDAYS: Woody Allen (Allen Konisberg), director/writer, 84; Bette Midler, singer/actrress, 75; Eric Bloom, guitarist (Blue Oyster Cult) 75; John Densmore, drummer (The Doors) 75; Gilbert (Raymond) O’Sullivan, singer/songwriter, 73; Neil Warnock, football manager, 71; Charlene Tilton, actress, 61; Steve Jansen (Batt) drummer (Japan) 60; Sarah Silverman, comedian, 49; Riz (Rizwan) Ahmed, actor, 37; Zoe Kravitz, actress/singer/model, 31.