1745: Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army retreats to Scotland.
1877: Thomas Edison records himself reciting “Mary Had A Little Lamb”. On the same day, the first edition of the Washington Post is published.
1889: Death of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate states during the American Civil War aged 81..
1896: Birth of lyricist Ira Gershwin
1897: London becomes the first city in the world to have licensed taxis.
1921: Signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Ireland receives dominion status; partition creates Northern Ireland.
1923: Calvin Coolidge makes the first Presidential radio broadcast.
1949: Death of blues legend Leadbelly (Huddie Ledbetter).aged 64.
1956: Nelson Mandela and 156 others are arrested for political activities in South Africa.
1957: The first US attempt to launch a satellite fails when the Vanguard rocket explodes on the launch pad.
1969: A free music festival headlined by The Rolling Stones at Altamont Raceway in California is marred by violence, mostly from Hell’s Angels hired as security, and four deaths including one caught on film.
1975: Four Provisional IRA members hold two hostages for six days in the Balcombe Street seige in London.
1988: Nelson Mandela is transferred to Victor Vester Prison, Capetown. On the same day, Roy Orbison dies of a heart attack aged 58.
1990: Saddam Hussein announces the release of all foreign hostages.
1998: Hugo Chavez is elected President of Venezuela.
2003: Elvis Costello married jazz artist Diana Krall at Elton John’s UK home. Guests included Paul McCartney.
2017: President Donald Trump officially recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, announcing plans to move the US embassy there.
2018: Luxembourg is the first country to make all public transport free.
BIRTHDAYS: JoBeth Williams, actress, 71; Keke Rosberg, former Formula 1 champion, 71; Rick Buckler, drummer (The Jam) 64; Peter Buck, guitarist (REM) 63; Nick Park, animator/film maker 61; Dave Lovering, drummer (Pixies) 58; Ben Watt, musician (Everything But The Girl) 57; Noel Clarke, actor/writer/director, 44; Andrew Flintoff, former cricketer/TV personality, 42; Tim Cahill, former footballer, 40.