1377: Mass execution of population (between 2,500 and 5,000) of Cesena, Italy, by Breton troops of Giovanni Acuto under the command of Robert, Cardinal of Geneva, acting as the legate of Pope Gregory XI.
1547: Ivan The Terrible marries Anastasia Romanova.both aged 17.
1809: Composer Felix Mendelssohn is born in Hamburg, Germany.
1863: Samuel Clemens first uses the pen name Mark Twain in a Virginia City newspaper, the “Territorial Enterprise”.
1917: The US liner Housatonic is sunk by German submarine, on the same day that US President Woodrow Wilson breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.
1924: Death of former US President Woodrow Wilson aged 67.
1931: New Zealand’s worst natural disaster, the Hawke’s Bay earthquake, kills 256 and injures thousands, devastating Napier and the Hawke’s Bay region.
1942: The first Japanese air raid on Java.
1944: US troops capture the Marshall Islands.
1945: Almost 1,000 Flying Fortresses drop 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin.
1959: Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens died when the small aircraft they were travelling in crashed in snow shortly after take-off from Clear Lake, Iowa .
1960: Prime Minister Harold Macmillan makes his famous “wind of change” speech in Africa against the apartheid regime.
1962: US President John F Kennedy bans all trade with Cuba except for food and drugs.Kennedy
1966: The Soviet Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the moon.
1967: Music producer Joe Meek shot his landlady Violet Shenton and then shot himself at his flat in London.
1968: The Beatles began work on recording Lady Madonna at EMI Studios in Abbey Road.
1969: Northern Ireland Prime Minister Terence O’Neill announces the dissolution of the Stormont parliament and the holding of new elections.
1971: A series of house searches by the British Army in Catholic areas of Belfast, result in rioting and gun battles.
1972: XI Winter Olympic Games opens in Sapporo, Japan.
1986: Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa meet in Calcutta.
1992: Pearl Jam played at The Esplanade Club, Southend, to 300 people, the band’s first ever UK show.
1993: The Federal trial begins of four police officers charged with civil rights violations in videotaped beating of Rodney King begins in Los Angeles.
1999: Angelina Jolie divorces actor Johnny Lee Miller.
2004: R. Kelly appeared in court and entered of plea of not guilty to 21 charges of child pornography.
2007: A Baghdad market bombing kills at least 135 people and injures a further 339.
2016: Lord Lucan’s death certificate is granted, 42 years after he disappeared following the murder of nanny Sandra Rivett.
2019: Wreckage from light aircraft carrying EPL team Cardiff City’s record signing Emiliano Sala is discovered on seabed of the English Channel.
BIRTHDAYS: Blythe Danner, actress, 77; Dave Davies, guitarist (The Kinks) 73; Melanie Safka, singer/songwriter, 73; Morgan Fairchild, actress, 70; Kirsty Wark, journalist/broadcaster 65; Lee Ranaldo, guitarist (Sonic Youth), 64; Nathan Lane, actor, 64; Lol Tolhurst, musician (The Cure) 61; Maura Tierney, actress, 55; Dave Benson-Phillips, Kids TV presenter, 53; Warwick Davis, actor, 50; Isla Fisher, actress, 44; Amal Clooney, human rights lawyer, 42.