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1493: Christopher Columbus leaves the New World for Spain.
1547: Ivan the Terrible declares himself first Tsar of Moscow.
1581: Parliament passes laws against Catholicism.
1605: The first edition of Book One of Don Quixote (El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha) by Miguel de Cervantes is published in Madrid.
1707: The Act of Union is ratified by the Scottish Parliament.
1761: The British capture Pondicherry, India, from the French.
1793: Louis XVI is sentenced to death by the National Convention during the French Revolution.
1809: The British defeat the French at the Battle of Corunna in the Penninsula War.
1832: Charles Darwin lands at Porto Prayo in the Cape Verde islands, the first landing of his HMS Beagle voyage.
1924: The government of Stanley Baldwin resigns.
1933: Australian batsman Bert Oldfield’s skull is fractured by a delivery bowled by Englishman Harold Larwood during the third test of the Bodyline tour in Adelaide.
1939: The IRA begins a bombing campaign in England.
1942: Film star Carole Lombard (Jane Peters) dies in a plane crash aged 33.
1944: General Eisenhower takes command of the Allied Invasion Force in London.
1945: Adolf Hitler moves to his underground bunker in Berlin.
1956: Egyptian President Gamal Nasser pledges to reconquer Palestine.
1957: The Cavern Club opens on Matthews Street in Liverpool.
1961: A Russian espionage ring is detected in Britain.
1962: Shooting begins on “Dr No” the first James Bond film.
1963: Soviet leader Nikita Kruschev claims to have a 100-megaton nuclear bomb.
1979: The Shah of Iran flees for Egypt during the Iranian Revolution.
1980: Paul McCartney was jailed for nine days in Tokyo for marijuana possession after being found with 219g on his arrival at Narita Airport in Japan.
1984: Paul and Linda McCartney are arrested in Barbados for possession of cannabis.
1985: David Bowie’s schizophrenic half-brother Terry Burnes killed himself aged 47 after laying down on the railway lines at Coulsdon South station, London. He was killed instantly by a passing train.
1988: Tina Turner performed in front of 182,000 people in Rio De Janeiro – the largest audience ever for a single artist.
1990: Ike Turner was convicted of driving under the influence of cocaine and jailed for four years.
2004: Michael Jackson appeared in court and pleaded not guilty to seven charges of child molestation.
2007: Bob Dylan and his brother bought Aultmore House a mansion in the Scottish Cairngorms National Park, near Nethybridge, Inverness.
2009: Boy George was sentenced to 15 months in prison after being convicted of falsely imprisoning a male escort.
2019: Cairo is engulfed by a sandstorm turning it orange.
BIRTHDAYS: Harvey Proctor, former politician, 73; Cliff Thorburn, snooker legend, 72; John Carpenter, film maker, 72; Debbie Allen, actress/dancer 70; Sade (Helen Folasade Adu) singer 61; Paul Raven, musician (Killing Joke) 59; James May, TV presenter, 57; Kate Moss, model, 46; Lin Manuel Miranda, playwright/composer/actor, 40; Nick Valensi, guitarist (The Strokes) 39; Bobby Zamora, former footballer, 39; Samuel Preston, musician (The Ordinary Boys) 38.