1535: Pizarro founds the city of Lima in Peru.
1778: Captain Cook discovers The Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands).
1871: Second German Empire proclaimed by Kaiser Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismark.
1892: Birth of Oliver Hardy in Georgia, US.
1904: Birth of Cary Grant (Archibald Leach) in Bristol.
1919: Composer and musician Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes prime minister of Poland.
1936: Death of writer Rudyard Kipling aged 70.
1941: A counter-offensive is launched by the British against the Italians in East Africa.
1965: The Rolling Stones recorded ‘The Last Time’ and ‘Play With Fire’ at the RCA studio in Hollywood.
1972: Prime Minister of Northern Ireland Brian Faulkner bans all parades and marches in Northern Ireland until the end of the year.
1990: Singer Mel Appleby of the duo Mel and Kim, died of Pneumonia aged 23 following treatment for metastatic paraganglioma.
1991: The US acknowledges the CIA and US Army paid Panama dictator Manuel Noriega $320,000 over his time in power.
1993: Elton John resigns his directorship of Watford Football Club.
1996: Lisa Marie Presley files for divorce from Michael Jackson.
2010: Canadian folk singer Kate McGarrigle, mother of Rufus and Martha Wainwright, died of cancer in Montreal at the age of 63.
2016: The Eagles guitarist Glenn Frey died at the age of 67 in New York City from complications arising from rheumatoid arthritis, colitis and pneumonia.
BIRTHDAYS: Raymond Briggs, author, 86; Legs Larry Smith, drummer (Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band) 76; Kevin Costner, actor/director 65; Mark Rylance, actor, 60; Peter Beardsley, former footballer, 59; Jane Horrocks, actress, 56; Dave Bautista, actress, 51; Jonathan Davis, singer (Korn) 49; Pep Guardiola, football manager, 49; Leo Varadkar, Irish Taoiseach, 41; Robert Green, goalkeeper, 40; Jason Segel, actor/writer 40; Joanna Newsom, musician, 38.