It happened today – this day in history – January 20

1265: The first English Parliament summoned other than by royal command (by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester) meets in Westminster Hall.

1356: Edward Balliol abdicates as King of Scots.

1382: Richard II marries Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey.

1513: Christian II succeeds Johan I as king of Denmark and Norway.

1523: Christian II is forced to abdicate Johan I as king of Denmark and Norway.

1613: The Peace of Knarod ends the War of Kalmar between Denmark and Sweden.

1667: The Treaty of Andrussovo ends the 13-year war between Poland and Russia.

1841: China cedes Hong Kong to the British during the First Opium War.

1921: The British submarine HMS K5 sinks with 57 crew during exercises in the Bay of Biscay.

1936: Edward VIII becomes King on the death of his father George V.

1937: Franklin D Roosevelt is inaugurated as US President.

1941: Chinese Communist leaders re-organize the New Fourth Army in defiance of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek’s order for it to be disbanded. On the same day, Bela Bartok’s 6th string quartet, premieres in New York.

1942: The Japanese invade Burma. On the same day, Nazi officials hold the notorious Wannsee Conference in Berlin to organise the “final solution” – the extermination of Europe’s Jews.

1944: The RAF drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.

1945: Franklin D Roosevelt is sworn in as US President for an unprecedented fourth term

1952: The British army occupies Ismailiya in the Suez Canal Zone.

1956: Buddy Holly records Blue Days Black Night in Nashville.

1961: John F Kennedy is sworn in as the youngest ever elected president of the United States.

1965: Iconic American disc-jockey Alan Freed dies from uraemia and cirrhosis brought on by alcoholism at the age of 42.

1967: The Monkees TV show is shown for the first time in the UK.

1969: Richard Nixon is inaugurated as US president.

1972: The number of people out of work and claiming benefit in the UK exceeds 1 million for the first time since the 1930s.

1980: President Jimmy Carter announces the US will boycott of the Moscow Olympics due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. On the same day, Pittsburgh Steelers beat the LA Rams, 31-19 to win the Super Bowl.


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1981: Ronald Reagan is inaugurated as the 40th, and at that time oldest President of the US. On the same day, US diplomats and citizens held hostage at the US embassy in Tehran are released and begin their journey home after 444 days. Iran held off the release for a day as an insult to former president Jimmy Carter.

1982: While playing a concert in Des Moines, Iowa, Ozzy Osbourne bites the head off a bat thrown on stage thinking it’s a rubber toy. After the show he is rushed to hospital for rabies shots.

1984: Champion swimmer and Tarzan actor Johnny Weissmuller dies aged 79.

1985: The San Francisco 49ers with quarterback Joe Montana, beat the Miami Dolphins, 38-16 to win the Super Bowl.

1987: Police carry out a series of dawn raids in London. The Home Counties and the Midlands in their biggest operation so far to apprehend the ringleaders of organised fan violence in and around football stadiums. On the same day, church envoy Terry Waite is taken hostage in Beirut.

On TV (Tuesday)


THAMES

06.15TV-am

09.25Thames News

09.30Finding Out

09.50For Schools

12.00Tickle on the Tum

12.10Rainbow

12.30The Sullivans

13.00ITN News at One

13.20Thames News

13.30Bulman
A high-flying executive hires Bulman to clear his name. But is he clean enough to stand up to scrutiny? And what happened to his wife? Stars Don Henderson.

14.30Daytime
With Sarah Kennedy and guests.

15.00Cross Wits

15.25Thames News

15.30The Young Doctors

16.00Button Moon

16.10Batfink

16.20He-Man and the Masters of the Universe

16.45Splash

17.15Blockbusters

17.45News at 5:45

18.00Thames News

18.30Busman’s Holiday

19.00Emmerdale Farm

19.30Reporting London

20.00Inspector Morse
Starring John Thaw.

22.00ITN News at Ten

22.30Charlie


CHANNEL 4

14.15Their Lordships’ House

14.30Film: The Man with Two Faces (1934)
A talented young actress seems to be under the spell of her unscrupulous husband. Stars Edward G Robinson.

15.45Years Ahead

16.30Jigsaw

17.00Bewitched

17.30As Good as New

18.00Remington Steele

18.55Muran Buchstansangur

19.00Channel 4 News

19.50Comment

20.00Brookside

20.30Moneyspinner

21.00Film: Parole (1982)
TV movie starring Ellen Barkin

22.50The Max Headroom Show

23.20Soap

23.50Jazz at the Gateway


BBC ONE

06.00Ceefax AM

06.30News Headlines followed by The Flintstones

06.55Weather

07.00Breakfast Time
with Frank Bough Sally Magnusson and Jeremy Paxman

08.40Watchdog

08.55Regional News and Weather

09.00News and Weather

09.05Day to Day
Studio debate with Robert Kilroy-Silk

09.45Advice Shop

10.00News and Weather

10.05Neighbours

10.25Children’s BBC

10.30Play School

10.50Willo the Wisp

10.55Five to Eleven

11.00News and Weather

11.05Bazaar

11.35Open Air

12.00News and Weather

12.20The Tom O’Connor Roadshow

12.55Regional News and Weather

13.00One O’Clock News and Weather

13.25Neighbours

13.45Pigeon Street

14.00Film: The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934)
Starring Norma Shearer, Charles Laughton. The Barrett household is dominated by the tyrannical Edward Moulton Barrett. When his favourite daughter Elizabeth begins a relationship with the poet Robert Browning, Barrett sees his iron authority threatened.

15.50Children’s BBC

16.05The Hunter

16.10Bananaman

16.15Jonny Briggs

16.30The Really Wild Show

17.00John Craven’s Newsround

17.10Grange Hill

17.35Fax

18.00Six O’Clock News

18.35Regional news magazines

19.00Holiday 87

19.30EastEnders

20.00Hancock’s Half Hour
The Poison Pen Letters starring Tony Hancock and featuring Sidney James.

20.30Tom O’Connor

21.00Nine O’Clock News

21.30A Sort of Innocence

22.20Network
Presented by Anna Ford and David Jessel. TV’s decision-makers face a concerned and critical audience.

23.10Film 87
with Barry Norman. Sean Connery dons a habit and plays the part of a clerical sleuth in The Name of the Rose. Also The Golden Child – an action adventure with Eddie Murphy.

23.40Save a Life

23.50Weather


BBC TWO

09.00Gharbar

09.25Pages from Ceefax

09.52Daytime on 2

14.00News and Weather

14.02You and Me

14.15Cameo

14.25Songs of Praise

15.00News and Weather

15.03Newsnight Afternoon

15.50Regional News and Weather

16.00Pamela Armstrong
News, views, gossip with Pamela and her guests.

16.35Look Stranger

17.05My Music

17.30Tomorrow’s World

18.00Film: Doc Savage: Man Of Bronze (1975)
Thirties hero Doc Savage flies to South America to avenge the death of his father at the hands of the villainous Captain Seas. But their quest develops into a battle for a bottomless pool of gold in the legendary Valley of the Vanished. Stars Ron Ely.

19.35Tex Avery Cartoon

19.45Maestro

20.30Food and Drink

21.00At the End of the Day
Rt Hon Harold Macmillan in conversation with Robert McKenzie.

21.45Tchaikovsky: The Symphonies

22.55Newsnight

23.40Weather

1989: George H W Bush is inaugurated as US President with Dan Quayle vice president.

1990: The Soviet army cracks down on Azerbaijani pro-independence demonstrations in Baku. On the same day, actress Barbara Stanwyck (Ruby Stevens) dies aged 82.

1991: US Patriot missiles begin shooting down Iraqi Scud missiles. On the same day, Sudan’s government imposes Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the Muslim north and Christian south.

Singles chart:

  1. Innuendo – Queen
  2. 3am Eternal – The KLF
  3. Sadeness Part 1 – Enigma
  4. Crazy – Seal
  5. Gonna Make You Sweat – C & C Music Factory ft Freedom Williams
  6. Wiggle It – 2 In A Room
  7. I Can’t Take The Power – Off-Shore
  8. (I’ve Had) The Time Of My Life – Bill Medley and Jennifer Warnes
  9. Mercy Mercy Me – Robert Palmer
  10. The Grease Megamix – John Travolta and Olivia Newton John
1991: Chris Isaak – Wicked Game

Album chart:

  1. MCMXC AD – Enigma
  2. The Immaculate Collection – Madonna
  3. The Very Best Of – Elton John
  4. A Little Ain’t Enough – David Lee Roth
  5. I’m Yourr Baby Tonight – Whitney Houston
  6. Wicked Game – Chris Isaak
  7. Serious Hits…Live! – Phil Collins
  8. To The Extreme – Vanilla Ice
  9. In Concert – Jose Careras, Placido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti
  10. Please Hammer Don’t Hurt ‘Em – MC Hammer

1993: Bill Clinton is inaugurated as president of the US. On the same day, film star Audrey Hepburn (Ruston) dies from colon cancer aged 63.

1994: Legendary football manager Sir Matt Busby dies aged 84.

1996: Jazz saxophonist Gerry Mulligan dies aged 68 after complications arising from a knee operation.

2002: Photographs are published showing al-Qaeda and Taleban suspects shackled and masked at a US military camp in Cuba.

2009: Barack Obama is inaugurated as president of the US with Joe Biden as vice president.

2012: Singer Etta James (Jamesetta Hawkins) dies from leukaemia at the age of 73.

2017: Donald Trump is inaugurated as president of the US.

2018: Jim Rodford, bassist with Argent and later The Kinks, dies aged 76 after a fall.

2021: Joe Biden is inaugurated as the 46th President of the United States of America and Kamala Harris as Vice President. He then signs 15 executive orders on his first day in office to re-join the WHO, the Paris Climate Agreement, revoking the Keystone XL Pipeline and mandating masks on federal properties.

2022: 19-year-old aviator Zara Rutherford becomes the youngest woman to fly solo around the world. On the same day, singer Meat Loaf (Marvin Lee Aday) dies aged 74.

Katie Zelem (Photo: James Boyes)

BIRTHDAYS: Buzz (Edwin) Aldrin, astronaut, 94; Tom Baker, actor, 90; Eric Stewart, guitarist/singer-songwriter (10cc) 79; David Lynch, director/screenwriter, 78; Liza Goddard, actress, 74; Ian Hill, bassist (Judas Priest) 72; Paul Stanley (Stanley Elsen), guitarist/singer-songwriter (Kiss) 72; Bill Maher, TV host/comedian 68; Scott Thunes, bassist (Frank Zappa), 64; Heather Small, singer (M People) 59; Rainn Wilson, actor/writer, 58; Nicky Wire (Jones), bassist/songwriter (Manic Street Preachers) 55; Gary Barlow, singer-songwriter (Take That) 53; Questlove (Ahmir Thompson), musician/songwriter, 53; Nikki Haley, US politician, 52; Kirsty Gallagher, TV presenter, 48; Will Young, singer, 45; Matthew Tuck, singer/guitarist (Bullet For My Valentine) 44; Nathan Connolly, guitarist (Snow Patrol) 43; Owen Hargreaves, footballer, 43. Joe Swash, actor/TV presenter, 42; Evan Peters, actor, 37; Mark Wright, TV personality, 37; Katie Zelem, footballer, 28.