1493: First sight of manatees by Christopher Columbus.
1570: Ivan the Terrible kills 1,000-2,000 residents of Novgorod.
1718: France declares war on Spain.
1799: Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces income tax to raise funds for the war against Napoleon.
1806 : Admiral Horatio Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul’s Cathedral.
1839: The Daguerrotype photo process is announced at the French Academy of Science.
1858: Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas, commits suicide.
1861: Mississippi secedes from the Union.
1862: The first petroleum shipment (1,329 barrels) from the US to Europe arrives at Victoria Docks, London.
1878: Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
1917: The Battle of Rafa occurs near the Egyptian border with Palestine.
1937: Mussolini’s fascist regime bans marriage between Italians and Abyssinians.
1941: 6,000 Jews are exterminated in a pogrom in Bucharest, Romania.
1942: In his 20th title defence, Joe Louis KOs Buddy Baer in the first round of their rematch to retain his world heavyweight boxing title at Madison Square Garden.
1945: The US invades The Philippines.
1957: Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden resigns due to ill health.
1959: Singles chart:
- It’s Only Make Believe – Conway Twitty
- Hoots Mon – Lord Rockingham’s XI
- Tom Dooley – Lonnie Donegan
- Tea For Two Cha Cha – Tommy Dorsey Orchestra starring Warren Covington
- The Day The Rains Came – Jane Morgan
- Love Makes The World Go Round – Perry Como
- Tom Dooley – The Kingston Trio
- High Class Baby – Cliff Richard and the Drifters
- Baby Face – Little Richard
- To Know Him Is To Love Him – The Teddy Bears
1960: Building begins on the Aswan Dam in Egypt.
1963: Drummer Charlie Watts joins The Rolling Stones after leaving Blues Incorporated and his job as a graphic designer.
1968: The Surveyor 7 probe soft lands on Moon.
1969: The first test flight of Concorde in Bristol.
1972: Coal miners stage their first national strike in almost 50 years. On the same day, billionaire recluse Howard Hughes says an autobiography published by Clifford Irving is fake. Also, the retired passenger liner Queen Elizabeth is destroyed by fire in Hong Kong harbour.
1973: Mick Jagger is refused a Japanese visa on an account of a 1969 drug conviction causing The Rolling Stones to cancel their forthcoming tour.
1977: The Oakland Raiders beat the Minnesota Vikings, 32-14 to win the Super Bowl.
1979: Charlton Athletic players Mick Flanagan and Derek Hales are sent off in the FA Cup Third Round tie against Maidstone United for fighting each other.
1983: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visits The Falklands.
1986: Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine resigns and walks out of a cabinet meeting after a row with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher over the Westland helicopter affair. On the same day, Kodak has to give up its instant camera business after losing a patent battle with Polaroid.
1992: Britain’s most senior policewoman Assistant Chief Constable Alison Halford is suspended over allegations of misconduct.
1995: Comedy writer/actor Peter Cook dies aged 57.
1997: Lone yachtsman, Tony Bullimore, feared drowned after his boat capsized in the Southern Ocean, is found safe and well. On the same day, Frank Sinatra suffers a heart attack.
2000: Album chart:
- The Man Who – Travis
- Come On Over – Shania Twain
- Westlife – Westlife
- On How Life IS – Macy Gray
- S Club – S Club 7
- All The Way: A Decade Of Song
- Baby One More Time – Britney Spears
- Performance And Cocktails – Stereophonics
- Steptacular – Steps
- Gold: Greatest Hits – ABBA
2007: The iPhone is announced by Apple CEO Steve Jobs.
2009: Singer Dave Dee dies aged 67. As a young police cadet he was first on the scene of the car crash that killed Eddie Cochran in 1960.
2010: Musician Jamie Cullum marries model Sophie Dahl in Hampshire.
2011: Film director Peter Yates dies aged 81.
2014: Yaya Toure wins African Footballer of the Year.
2015: Darren Partington, of acid house pioneers 808 State, is jailed for 18 months for dealing heroin and crack cocaine.
2016: Broadcaster Ed Stewart dies from a stroke aged 74.
2018: Former Liverpool goalkeeper Tommy Lawrence dies aged 77.
BIRTHDAYS: Joan Baez, singer-songwriter, 81; Jimmy Page, guitarist/songwriter, (Led Zeppelin) 78; David Johansen, singer/actor (New York Dolls) 72; Crystal Gayle (Brenda Webb), singer, 71; J K Simmons, actor, 67; Imelda Staunton, actress, 66; Eric Erlandson, guitarist (Hole) 59; Phil Hartnoll, musician, (Orbital) 58; Joely Richardson, actress, 57; Stephen Metcalfe, MP, 56; Sarah Beeny, TV presenter, 50; Sergio Garcia (Fernández), golfer, 42; Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, 40; James Acaster, comedian, 37; Paolo Nutini, singer-songwriter, 35; Nicola Coughlan, actress, 35; Nina Dobrev (Nikolina Kamenova Dobreva) actress, 33; Issa Diop, footballer, 25.