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1493: The first sight of manatees by Christopher Columbus.
1570: Ivan the Terrible kills 1,000-2,000 residents of Novgorod.
1718: France declares war on Spain.
1768: Philip Astley stages the world’s first modern circus in London.
1799: William Pitt the Younger introduces income tax to raise funds for the war against Napoleon.
1806: Admiral Viscount Horatio Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul’s Cathedral.
1839: The Daguerreotype photographic process is announced at the French Academy of Science.
1909: Ernest Shackleton as part of the British Nimrod Expedition reaches a record farthest South latitude.
1942:In his 20th title defence, Joe Louis KOs Buddy Baer in the first round of their rematch to retain his world heavyweight boxing title at Madison Square Garden.
1960: Building of Aswan dam in Egypt, begins.
1963: Drummer Charlie Watts joined The Rolling Stones.
1972: Retired passenger liner Queen Elizabeth is destroyed by fire in Hong Kong harbour. On the same day, British coal miners begin a national strike, the first for half a century.
1981: Terry Hall and Jerry Dammers from The Specials were both fined £400 after being found guilty of using threatening words during a gig in Cambridge.
1983: Margaret Thatcher visits the Falklands Islands.
1986: After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak has to give up its instant camera business.
1997: After being missing for five days, Tony Bullimore is rescued alive after his boat capsized at sea.
BIRTHDAYS: Susannah York, actress, 81; Joan Baez, folk singer, 79; Jimmy Page, guitarist/producer (Led Zeppelin) 76; David Johansen, singer/actor (New York Dolls) 70; Crystal Gayle (Brenda Gail Webb), singer, 69; J K Simmons, actor, 65; Imelda Staunton, actress, 64; Phil Hartnoll, musician (Oribital), 56; Joely Richardson, actress, 55; Dave Matthews, musician, 53; Sarah Beeny, TV presenter, 48; The Duchess of Cambridge, 38; Paulo Nutini, singer, 33.