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1109: Crusaders capture Tripoli.
1191: Richard the Lionheart and crusaders defeat Saracens in Palestine.
1542: French troops occupy Flanders.
1543: Henry VIII marries his sixth wife, Catherine Parr.
1549: Robert Kett’s uprising occupies Norwich over hardships inflicted by xtensive enclosures of common lands and the general policy of Lord Protector Edward Seymour.
1679: Charles II ratifies the Habeas Corpus Act giving those accused of a crime the right to a trial.
1690: Protestant King William III defeats English Catholic King James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.
1691: William III again defeats James II at the Battle of Aughrim in Ireland. On the same day, Antonio Pignatelli is elected as Pope Innocentius XII.
1712: Death of former Lord Protector Richard Cromwell aged 85.
1730: Lorenzo Corsini chosen as Pope Clemens XII. On the same day, pottery designer and manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood is born in Burslem.
1861: Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed David McCanles. He was later acquitted after it was found he acted in self defence.
1863: British forces invade Waikato, New Zealand, home of the Maori King Movement, beginning a new phase of the wars between Maori and Colonial British.
1884: Film producer Louis B. Mayer is born in Minsk.
1895: Birth of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II in New York.
1902: Australian parliament agrees to female suffrage. On the same day, Arthur Balfour replaces Lord Salisbury as British Prime Minister.
1910: Car manufacturer Charles Stewart Rolls dies aged 32.
1913: 150,000 Ulstermen gather and resolve to resist Irish Home Rule by force of arms.
1920: Lithuania and the USSR sign a peace treaty. Lithuania becomes an independent republic.
1930: Bobby Jones wins his fourth US Open at Interlachen.
1935: Belgium recognizes the Soviet Union.
1943: Russians defeat German forces in one of the largest ever tank battles at Prokhorovka.
1946: Benjamin Britten’s “Rape of Lucretia” premieres at the Glyndebourne Opera Festival.
1948: Six RAF de Havilland Vampires become the first jets to fly across the Atlantic.
1950: Hague Council of Annulment convicts German war criminals W Lages, FH Van de Funten and F Fischer to death.
1954: Elvis Presley, aged 19, signs a recording contract with Sun Records and gives in his notice at his day job at The Crown Electric Company in Memphis. On the same day, ANC President Albert Luthuli is banned by South African Minister of Justice from attending public gatherings and confined to the magisterial district of Lower Tugela, Natal.
1957: Dwight D Eisenhower becomes the first US President to ride in a helicopter. On the same day, US Surgeon General Leroy Burney connects smoking with lung cancer.
1960: Congo, Chad and the Central African Republic declare independence. On the same day, the USSR’s Sputnik 5 launched with 2 dogs on board.
1962: The Rolling Stones made their live debut at the Marquee Jazz Club, London, with Dick Taylor on bass (later of The Pretty Things) and Mick Avory on drums, (later of The Kinks).
1966: Start of a three-day race riot in Chicago.
1967: Race riot in Newark, New Jersey. 26 people are killed.
1969: Tony Jacklin wins the British Open at Royal Lytham. On the same day, as the ‘marching season’ reaches its height there is serious rioting in Derry, Belfast and Dungiven.
1970: Thor Heyerdahl crosses the Atlantic ocean on the raft Ra II. On the same day, Jack Nacklaus beats Doug Sanders by one stroke in the first 18-hole play-off at the British Open at St Andrews.
1973: Hollywood icon Lon (Leonidas) Chaney dies ages 67 after a long illness.
1974: Iconic Liverpool FC manager Bill Shankly announces his retirement after 15 years in charge.
1975: Tom Watson wins the British Open at Carnoustie.
1979: Singer-songwriter Minnie Riperton died of cancer aged 31.
1982: Britain announces it is returning 593 Argentine POWs captured during the Falklands Conflict. On the same day, actor Kenneth More dies of Parkinson’s disease at 67.
1983: Former Traffic sax and flute player, Chris Wood, died of liver failure.
1985: Doctors discover a cancerous growth in President Ronald Reagan’s colon.
1986: Dozens are injured in the second consecutive night of violence triggered by the annual Orange parade in Portadown, Co Armagh.
1990: Boris Yeltsin resigns from the Soviet Communist Party. On the same day, shanty town women in Soweto, South Africa, strip to the waist and confront bulldozers sent by authorities to demolish their homes.
1993: Photojournalist Dan Eldon is killed in Somalia while working for Reuters aged 22.
1998: Three young brothers are murdered in a loyalist arson attack during a stand-off between Orangemen and police at Drumcree. On the same day, Zinedine Zidane scores twice as France beat Brazil 3-0 to win the FIFA World Cup for the first time and Nelson Mandela accompanies The Queen on a coach drive through the streets of London.
1999: Death of actor Bill Owen aged 85.
2001: Schizophrenic Andrew Kernan is shot by police in Liverpool after running into the street with a samurai sword. His family demands a public inquiry over the police’s use of deadly force.
2003: Saxophonist, composer and arranger Benny Carter died aged 95.
2012: 200 people are killed by the Syrian army in Tremseh.
2013: Human rights activist Malala Yousafzai, who as a schoolgirl in Pakistan had been shot in the head by the Taliban, addresses the United Nations on her 16th birthday and calls for worldwide access to education. On the same day, broadcaster Alan Whicker dies aged 91.
2016: Serbian tennis player Ana Ivanović marries German footballer Bastian Schweinsteiger in Venice.
2017: The world’s largest iceberg breaks away from Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
2018: US President Donald Trump arrives in the UK for a four-day visit amid protests.
BIRTHDAYS: Bill Cosby, actor/comedian, 83; Howie Casey, saxophonist, 83; Christine McVie, singer-songwriter/keyboardist (Fleetwood Mac) 77; Wilko Johnson, guitarist/singer-songwriter, 73; Cheryl Ladd, actress, 69; Michael Robinson, footballer/Spanish TV host, 62; Gaby Roslin, TV presenter, 56; Annabel Croft, tennis player/broadcaster, 54; Richard Herring, comedian, 53; John Petrucci, guitarist, 53; Anna Friel, actress, 44; Dominic Howard, drummer (Muse) 43; Topher (Christopher) Grace, actor, 42; Michelle Rodriguez, actress, 42; Gareth Gates, singer, 36; Malala Yousafzai, human rights activist, 23.