1682: Henry Purcell is appointed organist of Chapel Royal, London.
1714: The Russian fleet overpowers larger Swedish fleet at the Battle of Aland.
1789: The French Revolution begins with the fall of the Bastille
1795: The French National Convention decrees “La Marseillaise” by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle is France’s national anthem.
1850: The first public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration by Florida physician John Gorrie.
1853: US President Franklin Pierce opens the World Fair – an exhibition of the industry of all nations – in New York.
1862: Birth of Austrian Art Nouveau painter Gustav Klimt.
1868: Alvin J Fellows patents the tape measure.
1881: Billy the Kid (William H Bonney) is shot by sheriff Pat Garrett aged 21.
1914: Robert Goddard is granted the first patent for a liquid-fueled rocket design.
1933: Germany begins the mandatory sterilization of people with hereditary illnesses. On the same day, all non Nazi parties in the country are banned.
1938: Benito Mussolini publishes an anti-Jewish/African manifesto.
1941: 6,000 Lithuanian Jews are exterminated at Viszalsyan camp.
1946: The mass murder of Jews in Kielce, Poland.
1955: Two die and many are dazed when lightning strikes Ascot racecourse.
1957: The Soviet steamer “Eshghbad” sinks in the Caspian Sea – 270 drown.
1958: The Iraqi Army stages a coup, overthrowing the monarchy and declaring Iraq as a republic.
1963: French cyclist Jacques Anquetil wins his third consecutive Tour de France.
1964: French cyclist Jacques Anquetil wins his fourth consecutive Tour de France.
1965: Mariner IV, the first US Mars probe, passes at 6,100 miles. On the same day, Italian Felice Gimondi wins the tour de France.
1966: Richard Speck rapes and kills eight nurses in a Chicago dormitory. On the same day, Lucien Aimar wins the Tour de France.
1967: Surveyor 4 is launched to the Moon, only to explode just before landing.
1969: A football match between El Salvador and Honduras results in the countries going to war. On the same day, a 67-year-old Catholic dies after being attacked by RUC officers in Dungiven. Many consider this the first death of ‘the Troubles’.
1971: Cheshire Police call off the hunt for the murderer of three French tourists after the body of Michael Bassett, 24, is discovered in a Ford Escort in Staffs. In a suicide note he admitted to the killings.
1973: During a concert at the John Wayne Theatre in Hollywood, Phil Everly smashes his guitar and storms of stage, Brother Don finishes the set by himself and announces that The Everly Brothers have split. This was the last that the duo performed together for nearly ten years. On the same day, Clarence White of The Byrds was killed by a drunk driver as he was loading equipment after a gig in Palmdale, California. Also, American Tom Weiskopf wins the British Open at Royal Troon.
1976: Jimmy Carter wins the Democratic presidential nomination.
1977: North Korea shoots down a US helicopter, killing three crew.
1983: Mario Bros. is first released by Nintendo in Japan as an arcade game.
1984: Phillippe Wynne lead singer with The Detroit Spinners dies of a heart attack while performing at Ivey’s nightclub in Oakland, California, aged 43.
1986: Richard Miller becomes the first FBI agent convicted of espionage.
1987: Taiwan ends 37 years of martial law.
1989: At The Peach Festival, South Carolina, 432 guitarist’s broke the world record for the most guitar players appearing in unison for the longest period of time, when they performed ‘Louie Louie’ for 30 minutes. On the same day, Tom Jones lost a paternity suit and was ordered to pay $200 a week in child support to 27 year old Katherine Berkery of New York. The judge was Judy Sheindlin, later to gain fame as TV’s Judge Judy.
1991: UK forces withdraw from a haven in the Turkish mountains where a multi-national force had been protecting Iraqi Kurds from reprisals by Saddam Hussein. On the same day there is a failed military coup in Mali.
2001: British tourists Peter Falconio and Joanne Lees are allegedly attacked while driving in the Northern Territory of Australia. Falconio’s body is never found but Lees later identifies Bradley Murdoch as the attacker and he is subsequently found guilty, although documentary makers and forensic experts continue to cast doubt on the conviction. On the same day, six days of crisis talks to save the Northern Ireland peace process end in deadlock.
2002: French president Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt unscathed during Bastille Day celebrations.
2006: Primal Scream singer Bobby Gillespie had his nose broken when he was attacked in a hotel bar in Madrid.
2014: The Church of England votes in favour of allowing women to become bishops. On the same day, the Egyptian government proposes a cease fire in the Israel–Gaza conflict.
2015: Arthur Cave the 15-year-old son of musician Nick Cave died after a fall from a cliff in Brighton. On the same day, scientists from the Large Hadron Collider announce the discovery of a new particle called the pentaquark.
2019: England beats New Zealand on count back after scores are tied at 241 to win the Cricket World Cup at Lord’s. On the same day, Lewis Hamilton wins a record sixth British Grand Prix at Silverstone. On the same day, Donald Trump ignites racial controversy by tweeting four Democrat women of colour to “go back and help fix the totally broken and crime infested places from which they came.”
BIRTHDAYS: Jim Gordon, drummer (Derek & The Dominoes) 75; Andy Newmark, drummer, 70; Bruce Oldfield, fashion designer, 70; Chris Cross (Christopher Allen), bassist (Ultravox) 68; Bebe Buell (Beverley Lorence), model/mother of Liv Tyler, 67; Jackie Earle Haley, actor, 59; Ellen Reid, keyboardist (Crash Test Dummies) 54; Matthew Fox, actor, 54; Tanya Donnelly, guitarist (Belly/Throwing Muses) 54; Nick McCabe, guitarist (The Verve) 49; David Mitchell, comedian/actor, 46; Taboo (Jaime Luis Gomez) rapper (Black Eyed Peas) 45; Lee Mead, actor, 39; Phoebe Waller-Bridge, actress/writer, 35; Dan Smith, vocalist (Bastille) 34; Dan Reynolds, singer (Imagine Dragons) 33; Conor McGregor, boxer, 32.