1054: Three Roman legates fracture relations between Western and Eastern Christian churches by placing invalid Papal Bull of Excommunication on altar of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople during liturgy. Often seen as the start of the East-West schism.
1429: Joan of Arc and the French army enter the city of Rheims.
1439: Kissing is banned in England to stop the Black Death from spreading.
1519: Public debate between Martin Luther and theologian Johann Eck at Pleissenburg Castle in Liepzig, during which Luther denies the divine right of the Pope.
1548: La Paz, Bolivia, is founded.
1557: Death of Anne of Cleves aged 41.
1661: The first banknotes in Europe are issued by Bank of Stockholm.
1782: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s opera “Die Entführung aus dem Serail” premieres in Vienna with Mozart conducting.
1789: Louis XVI reinstates Jacques Necker as French finance minister following riots at his dismissal.
1790: Congress declares the city of Washington in the District of Columbia, the permanent capital of the United States.
1809: La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva.
1819: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen sets sail to explore Antarctica for Tsar Alexander I.
1867: Joseph Monier patents reinforced concrete.
1897: The South African Committee, investigating the Jameson Raid releases its report finding that it was conducted almost implicitly through the support and encouragement of Cecil Rhodes and the mining houses in the Transvaal.
1900: A report appears in London that all foreigners in Peking, have been massacred in the Boxer rebellion. Although soon exposed as false, the report helps mobilize support for relief of foreigners. On the same day, Russia launches an offensive against the Chinese in Manchuria.
1901: The Fawcett Commission headed by Millicent Fawcett is established as a result of an outcry against the treatment of Afrikaners in concentration camps during the South African War.
1920: The USA tennis team beats Australasia 5-0 in Aukland to win the Davis Cup.
1921: Encouraged by Britain, King Constantine of Greece launches a drive to take Asia Minor from nationalists under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
1925: The first parliament in Iraq is opened by King Feisal in Baghdad.
1927: Augusto Sandino begins 5½ year war against the US occupation of Nicaragua.
1935: The first automatic parking meter in the United States is installed in Oklahoma City.
1936: The first x-ray photo of arterial circulation is taken in Rochester, New York.
1940: Adolf Hitler orders preparations for the invasion of Britain (Operation Sealion).
1942: French police arrest 13,152 Jews in Paris.
1945: Winston Churchill, Harry S Truman, Josef Stalin discuss the fate of a defeated Germany at Potsdam. On the same day, The first test detonation takes place of an atomic bomb in New Mexico as part of the US Manhattan Project.
1946: A US court martial sentences 46 members of the SS to death in Dachau for war crimes during the Battle of the Bulge.
1950: Uruguay win the World Cup for the second time.
1951: King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates. On the same day, “The Catcher In The Rye” by J D Salinger is published.
1955: Stirling Moss wins the British Grand Prix for the first time. Juan Manuel Fangio of Argentina clinches his third Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by finishing second.
1962: The Beach Boys sign to Capitol Records.
1965: The Mont Blanc road tunnel opens between France and Italy.
1966: Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker form Cream.
1967: Joni Mitchell, Leonard Cohen, Judy Collins, Janis Ian, and Tom Paxton appear at the Newport Folk Festival in Newport, Rhode Island.
1969: The Apollo 11 crew of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins take off from Cape Kennedy at the start of the first mission to land a man on the Moon. On the same day, working on the Abbey Road album at EMI Studios, The Beatles continue work on George Harrison’s songs Something and Here Comes The Sun.
1970: Home Secretary Reginald Maudling declares a state of emergency to deal with strikes at UK ports. On the same day, the Commonwealth Games open in Edinburgh.
1971: General Franco appoints Prince Juan Carlos as deputy in Spain. On the same day, the SDLP withdraw from Stormont after no inquiry is announced into the shooting dead of Seamus Cusack and Desmond Beattie in Northern Ireland.
1973: During the Watergate hearings, Presidet Nixon’s deputy assistant, Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of White House tapes.
1979: President al-Bakr of Iraq is succeeded by Saddam Hussein.
1981: Singer-songwriter Harry Chapin is killed aged 38 suffering a cardiac arrest while driving on a New York expressway. His car was hit from behind by a tractor-trailer, causing the gas tank to explode.
1983: A Sisorsky S-61 helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities in Britain’s worst helicopter accident.
1985: The bill to abolish the Greater London Council receives royal assent.
1987: Rival airlines British Airways and British Caledonia agree to merge.
1988: Florence Joyner runs 100m in women’s world record 10.49 seconds.
1990: A civil trial by parents of suicide victims against Judas Priest, claims that subliminal messages in the songs forced their children to kill themselves begins. On the same day, Ukraine declares independence.
1993: MI5, holds the first photocall in its 84-year history.
1994: Actress Anna Nicole Smith, 26, marries 89-year old billionaire J Howard Marshall II.
1995: Rapper Queen Latifah is the victim of a car-jacking attempt in which her bodyguard is shot and wounded. On the same day, legendary Argentinian racing driver, Juan Manuel Fangio, dies aged 84.
- Boom Boom Boom – The Outhere Brothers
- Alright – Supergrass
- Shy Guy Diana King
- A Girl Like You – Edwyn Collins
- In The Summertime – Shaggy ft Rayvon
- Hold Me, Thrill Me, Kiss Me, Kill Me – U2
- Unchained Melody – Robson and Jerome
- Kiss From A Rose – Seal
- You Do Something To Me – Paul Weller
- 3 Is Family – Dana Dawson
- These Days – Bon Jovi
- I Should Coco – Supergrass
- History – Michael Jackson
- Picture This – Wet Wet Wet
- Singles – Alison Moyet
- The Colour Of My Love – Celine Dion
- Stanley Road – Paul Weller
- Gorgeous George – Edwyn Collins
- Bizarre Fruit – M People
- No Need To Argue – The Cranberries
1999: John F Kennedy Jr, his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in a plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard.
2004: US Businesswoman and TV personality Martha Stewart is sentenced to five months in prison plus five months in home confinement for lying to federal investigators.
2009: A stage being built in the Velodrome Stadium, Marseille, for a concert by Madonna collapses, killing two workers and injuring six others.
2012: Deep Purple keyboards player Jon Lord dies from caner aged 71. On the same day, country music singer Kitty Wells dies aged 92. Also, bassist on Smokey Robinson and the Miracles’ Tears of a Clown, Ball of Confusion by The Temptations and other Motown hits, Bob Babbitt, dies aged 74, from brain cancer and comedian Russell Brand divorces pop singer Kat Perry one year after their fairytale wedding in India.
2014: Blues guitarist Johnny Winter dies aged 70 in Zurich, Switzerland. On the same day, Bashar al-Assad is sworn in for a third term as President of Syria. Also, Hamas and Islamic Jihad offer Israel a 10-year truce with 10 conditions, which include lifting the blockade and the release of prisoners. It is rejected and Israel intensifies strikes on Gaza.
2015: A sports car belonging to US hip-hop pioneer Grandmaster Flash which contained valuable vintage records is mistakenly given away by a parking attendant in Manhattan. On the same day, Scientists reveal the first close-up pictures of Pluto, sent by the New Horizons probe.
2016: Vocalist, punk icon and visual artist Alan Vega dies aged 78. On the same day, Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump announces Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate.
2017: Jodie Whittaker is announced as the first female Doctor Who. On the same day, Rapper DMX was charged with tax fraud in the US after allegedly hiding millions of dollars in earnings.
2018: 12 new moons are discovered orbiting Jupiter bringing planet’s moon total to 79.
BIRTHDAYS: Mary Parkinson, journalist, 85; Margaret Court, Australian tennis legend, 79; Frank Field, Baron Field of Birkenhead, 79; John Hollins, footballer, 75; Lorraine Chase, actress, 70; Stewart Copeland, drummer (The Police) 69; Michael Flatley, dancer/choreographer, 63; Jenni Russell, broadcastrer, 61; Phoebe Cates Kline, actress, 58; Richard Marx, singer-songwriter, 58; Fatboy Slim (Norman Cook), DJ/musician, 58; Johnny Vaughan, broadcaster, 55; Will (John) Ferrell, comedian/writer, 54; Corey Feldman, actor, 50; Chris Pontius, actor, 47; Mousa Dembele, Belgian footballer, 34; Sergio Busquets, Spanish footballer, 33; Gareth Bale, footballer, 32; Andros Townsend, footballer, 30.