64: The Great Fire of Rome begins under Emperor Nero.
1290: Edward I orders the expulsion of Jews from England – an edict that lasts for 350 years.
1536: The Pope’s authority is declared void in England.
1610: Death of Italian painter Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) aged 38.
1696: Tsar Peter I’s fleet occupies Azov, Russia, at the mouth of the Don River.
1716: A decree orders all Jews expelled from Brussels.
1811: Birth of British novelist William Makepeace Thackeray in India.
1817: Death of novelist Jane Austen aged 41.
1848: Birth of legendary cricket all rounder W G Grace in Bristol.
1870: Pope Pius IX and the First Vatican Council officially proclaim the concept of papal infallibility.
1872: The Ballot Act introduces the secret ballot in elections in Britain.
1892: The first human test of a vaccine against cholera. Ukrainian bacteriologist Waldemar Huffkine risks his life by testing it on himself.
1907: French troops occupy Casablanca.
1914: Mahatma Gandhi leaves South Africa after successfully leading campaigns of passive resistance.
1915: The Second Battle of Isonzo begins and ends with over 80,000 casualties.
1918: US and French forces launch the Aisne-Marne offensive in the First World War.
1923: The House of Lords accepts new divorce law.
1925: Adolf Hitler publishes “Mein Kampf”
1926: South Africa author and journalist, Herman Charles Bosman, shoots and kills his stepbrother David Russell during an argument. On the same day, the Tour de France is won by Lucien Buysse of Belgium.
1936: General Franco issues his manifesto and leads an uprising in the Spanish army stationed in Morocco. On the same day, New York gangster Charles “Lucky” Luciano is sentenced to 30-50 years in state prison.
1938: Pilot Douglas Corrigan arrives in Ireland after a 28 hours flight. His destination from New York was supposed to be California but he had flown in the opposite direction.
1944: British troops occupy the Bourquebus hill range in Normandy.
1947: George VI signs the Indian Independence Act. On the same day, US President Harry Truman signs the Presidential Succession Act.
1951: Jersey Joe Walcott becomes the oldest heavyweight boxing champion at 37.
1953: Truck driver Elvis Presley, 18, made his first ever recording when he paid $3.98 at the Memphis recording service singing two songs, ‘My Happiness’ and ‘That’s When Your Heartaches Begin’. The so-called vanity disc, was a gift for his mother.
1958: The British Empire Games and Commonwealth Games open in Cardiff.
1959: The Tour de France is won by Federico Bahamontes of Spain.
1960: UN troops arrive in the Congo.
1963: Failed military coup in Syria. On the same day, the United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid releases its second interim report pressing for international sanctions against South Africa, particularly the supply of arms, ammunition and petroleum.
1964: A race riot in Harlem, New York, spreads to Brooklyn.
1966: US police charge seaman Richard Speck with the murder of eight student nurses in their hostel in Chicago. On the same day, Bobby Fuller, leader of The Bobby Fuller Four was found dead in his car outside his apartment aged 23. Also, Gemini 10 is launched with astronauts John Young and Michael Collins.
1968: The Beatles recorded “Cry Baby Cry” and “Helter Skelter” for the White Album at EMI Studios in Abbey Road.
1969: During a session for The Beatles’ Abbey Road album, Ringo Starr recorded his vocal to his song ‘Octopus’s Garden’.
1970: Radio 1 DJ Kenny Everett is sacked after joking on air that the wife of the conservative transport minister Mary Peyton had “crammed a fiver into the examiner’s hand”, when taking her driving test. On the same day, Pink Floyd, Roy Harper, Kevin Ayres and The Edgar Broughton Band appear at a free concert in Hyde Park. Also, Arthur Brown is arrested for stripping on stage in Palemo, Sicily.
1972: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat throws out 20,000 Russian military aides. On the same day, the 100th British soldier to die in the “troubles” is shot by a sniper in Belfast.
1974: John Lennon is ordered to leave the US in 60 days after the Immigration and Naturalization Service deny him an extension of his non-immigrant visa.
1976: Karl-Heinz Stockhausen’s “Sirius” premieres in New York. On the same day, Nadia Comăneci of Romania becomes the first gymnast in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 at the Montreal Games. Also, Lucien Van Impe of Belgium wins the Tour de France.
- Don’t Go Breaking My Heart – Elton John & Kiki Dee
- A Little Bit More – Dr Hook
- Forever And Ever – Demis Roussos
- Young Hearts Run Free – Candi Staton
- Kiss And Say Goodbye – The Manhattans
- Misty Blue – Dorothy Moore
- You To Me Are Everything – The Real Thing
- You’re My Best Friend – Queen
- It Only Takes A Minute – 100 Tons and a Feather
- Let’s Stick Together – Bryan Ferry
- 20 Golden Greats – The Beach Boys
- Changesonebowie – David Bowie
- A Night On The Town – Rod Stewart
- Greatest Hits – ABBA
- Forever And Ever – Demis Roussos
- Laughter And Tears – Neil Sedaka
- Passport – Nana Mouskouri
- Happy To Be – Demis Roussos
- A Kind Of Hush – The Carpenters
- Beautiful Noise – Neil Diamond
1977: Vietnam becomes a member of the United Nations.
1982: Tom Watson wins his fourth British Open at Royal Troon.
1984: Walter Mondale wins the Democratic Party presidential nomination in San Francisco. On the same day, 21 people, including the shooter, James Oliver Huberty, are killed and 19 injured in a massacre at a McDonalds restaurant in San Ysidro, California.
1988: Ike Turner was sentenced in Santa Monica, California to one year in jail for possessing and transporting cocaine. On the same day, singer-songwriter Nico died after suffering a minor heart attack while riding a bicycle on holiday with her son in Ibiza. Also, Seve Ballesteros wins his third British Open at Royal Lytham & St Anne’s.
1990: Two teenage girls from Birmingham, Patricia Cahill, 17, and Karen Smith, 18, are arrested in Thailand for drug smuggling.
1992: Bobby Brown married Whitney Houston at her New Jersey estate. On the same day, Lady Helen Windsor, daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Kent marries art dealer Timothy Taylor at Windsor Castle.
1993: Afghan President Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif resign.
1998: Nelson Mandela marries third wife, Graça Machel, on his 80th birthday.
2000: Police confirm the body they found in a West Sussex field the day before is that of missing eight-year old Sarah Payne.
2002: Rolling Stones crew chief, 54 year old Royden Magee, who had worked with the band for 30 years, died during a rehearsal in Toronto. On the same day, rapper Mystikal and two other men were arrested on suspicion of raping a 40-year-old woman in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
2003: A body believed to be that of government scientist and arms control expert Dr David Kelly is found in Oxfordshire.
2004: Death of journalist Paul Foot aged 66.
2010: South African Louis Oosthuizen wins the British Open at St Andrews.
2012: Syrian suicide bombing kills three high profile government officials, including Syria’s Minister of Defence. On the same day, Kim Jong-un is officially appointed Supreme Leader of North Korea.
2017: R&B singer R Kelly denied allegations that he was holding several young women in an “abusive cult”.
2018: Google is fined a record $5.1 billion by the EU for abusing its power in the mobile phone market. On the same day, 17 men are charged with the gang-rape of a 12-year old girl in Chennai, India. Also, Cliff Richard wins his privacy case against the BBC, for reporting he was being investigated over historic child sexual assaults.
2019: One of world’s earliest mosques at 1,200 years old discovered by archaeologists in Israel’s Negev Desert.
BIRTHDAYS: Paul Verhoeven, director, 82; Brian Auger, organist, 81; Dion Dimucci, singer-songwriter, 81; James Brolin, actor, 80; Martha Reeves, singer 79; David Hemery, Olympic hurdler, 76; Dennis Lillee, Australian fast bowler, 71; Richard Branson, entrepreneur, 70; Ricky Scaggs, country singer, 66; Terry Chambers, drummer (XTC) 65; Nick Faldo, golfer, 63; Keith Levine, guitarist (PIL) 63; Pauline Quirke, actress, 61; Vin Diesel (Mark Vincent), actor, 53; Daron Malakian, guitarist (System of a Down) 45; Elsa Pataky, actress, 44; Kristen Bell, actress, 40; Priyanka Chopra (Jonas), actress, 38; Canelo Alvarez, boxer, 30.