It happened today – this day in history – July 25

306: Constantine I is proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops.

1261: Constantinople recaptured by Nicaean forces under Alexios Strategopoulos for Emperor Michael VIII, re-establishing the Byzantine Empire.

1564: Maximilian II succeeds his father Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor.

1729: North Carolina becomes a royal colony.

1759: The British capture Fort Niagara from French.

1797: Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife.

1799: French-Egyptian forces under Napoleon I beat the Turks at the Battle of Abukir.

1814: Engineer George Stephenson introduces his first steam locomotive, a travelling engine designed for hauling coal on the Killingworth wagonway, Tyneside..

1834: Poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge dies aged 61

1837: The first commercial use of an electric telegraph between Euston and Camden Town in London.

1850: Gold is discovered in Oregon.

1861: The Crittenden Resolution is passed stating that the American Civil War is to be fought to preserve union and uphold the constitution, not to alter slavery.

1902: James J Jeffries beats Bob Fitzsimmons by a KO in Round 8 to win the heavyweight boxing crown in San Francisco.

1907: Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan.

1909: France’s Louis Bleriot, makes the first airplane flight across the English Channel.

1914: Last day of club cricket for W G Grace aged 66. He was out first ball but refused to walk, eventually making 69 runs.

1918: Race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania.

1934: A Nazi coup fails in Austria.

1943: Italian dictator, Benito Mussolini, steps down as head of the armed forces and the government.

1944: US forces begin a major offensive in Normandy with an air bombardment.

1957: The monarchy in Tunisia is abolished.

1961: In a speech, President John F Kennedy emphasises that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.

1963: Cilla Black makes a recording test for EMI after Beatles producer George Martin had spotted her while at a Gerry And The Pacemakers gig in Liverpool. On the same day, the US, Russia & Britain sign a nuclear Test ban treaty.

1965: Bob Dylan goes electric as he plugs in a Fender Stratocaster backed by the Butterfield Blues Band at The Newport Folk Festival, Rhode Island, much to the dismay of folk purists who boo.him.

1966: Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, swims the Yangtze River.


1969: Senator Edward Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving the scene of a crime following the Chappaquiddick car crash in which political campaign worker Mary Jo Kopechne downed. On the same day, Neil Young appears with Crosby Stills and Nash for the first time at The Fillmore East in New York.

1972: US health officials concede African Americans were used as guinea pigs in a 40-year syphilis experiment.

1978: The birth of the world’s first “test tube baby”, Louise Brown, is announced in Manchester.

1981: Anti-apartheid protesters in Hamilton, New Zealand, force the cancellation of a rugby test between New Zealand’s All Blacks and South Africa’s Springboks by invading the pitch during the game.

1982: Bernard Hinault of France wins the Tour de France.

1984: Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to walk in space. On the same day, Willie Mae ‘Big Mama’ Thornton dies at the age of 58 of heart and liver complications.

1985: A spokeswoman for Hollywood heart-throb Rock Hudson confirms he has AIDS. On the same day, Steve Cram runs the mile in a world record time of 3:46.32.

1989: The Princess of Wales opens a new AIDS centre in Tulse Hill, south east London.

1990: The US Ambassador to Iraq says the US won’t take sides in the Iraq-Kuwait dispute.

1992: The Olympic Games opens in Barcelona.

1993: The latest UN ceasefire in Bosnia fails with shelling from both sides in Sarajevo. On the same day, Israel launches an offensive against terrorist bases in South Lebanon and Spaniard Miguel Induráin makes it three straight Tour de France titles.

1994: Jordan and Israel end a 46-year state of war.

1995: Country singer-songwriter Charlie Rich dies aged 62.

1997: Golfing legend Ben Hogan dies from a stroke aged 84.

1999: Lance Armstrong wins the first of seven consecutive Tour de France tournaments, but all titles are later wiped and he is disqualified for drug cheating.

Singles chart:

  1. Livin’ La Vida Loca – Ricky Martin
  2. If Ya Gettin’ Down – Five
  3. Love’s Got A Hold On My Heart – Steps
  4. Better Off Alone – Alice Deejay
  5. 9pm (Til I Come) – ATB
  6. My Love Is Your Love – Whitney Houston
  7. Boom Boom Boom Boom – The Vengaboys
  8. Wild Wild West – Will Smith
  9. Synth & Strings – Yomanda
  10. Lovestruck – Madness
1999: Jamiroquai – Synkronized

Album chart:

  1. By Request – Boyzone
  2. Ricky Martin – Ricky Martin
  3. Come On Over – Shania Twain
  4. My Love Is Your Love – Whitney Houston
  5. Gold: Greatest Hits – ABBA
  6. The Party Album – The Vengaboys
  7. The Very Best Of The Capitol/Reprise Years – Dean Martin
  8. Synkronized – Jamiroquai
  9. The Man Who – Travis
  10. Surrender – The Chemical Brothers

2000: Concorde crashes minutes after take-off from Charles de Gaulle airport near Paris killing 113 people.

2002: The Commonwealth Games open in Manchester.

2004: Brazil beats Argentina, 4-2 on penalties to win the Copa América in Lima, Peru.

2012: The double dip recession in the UK economy continues with a fall of 0.7% in GDP in the second quarter of the year.

2014: An Israeli air strike kills leader of Islamic Jihad’s military wing, Salah Abu Hassanein.

2018: Georgia representative James Spencer resigns after being fooled into using racial slurs on Sacha Baron Cohen’s “Who is America” programme.

2019: The US Justice department announces it is resuming the death penalty, scheduling five executions. On the same day, the highest ever UK temperature of 38.7C (101.6F) is recorded in Cambridge.

BIRTHDAYS: Manny (Manuel) Charlton, guitarist (Nazareth), 80; Jim McCarty, drummer (The Yardbirds)78; Verdine White, bassist (Earth Wind & Fire) 70; Iman (Jones), model, 66; Thurston Moore, guitarist (Sonic Youth) 63; Illeana Douglas, actress, 56; Matt LeBlanc, actor, 53; D B (David Bryan) Woodside, actor, 52; Kevin Phillips, former footballer, 47; Paul Epworth, songwriter/producer, 47; Jody Craddock, footballer, 46.