1267: The Inquisition forms in Rome under Pope Clement IV.
1469: The forces of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick battle those of Edward IV at the Battle of Edgecote during the Wars of the Roses.
1497: Pretender to the English throne, Perkin Warbeck’s army lands in Cork.
1524: James V is declared fit to govern by the Scottish Parliament.
1533: Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca Emperor, garroted by order of Franciso Pizarro.
1579: Francis Drake leaves San Francisco to cross Pacific Ocean.
1588: English Admiral John Hawkins knighted for his actions against the Spanish Armada.
1609: English mathematician Thomas Harriot is the first person to draw a map of the Moon by looking through a telescope.
1755: Giacomo Casanova is arrested in Venice for affront to religion and common decency and imprisoned in the Doge’s Palace.
1759: 11,000 British troops drive a token French garison of 400 out of Fort Ticonderoga, New York.
1803: The Surrey Iron Railway, arguably the world’s first public railway, opens in south London.
1847: The Liberian Declaration of Independence is signed making Liberia a sovereign nation.
1856: Birth of dramatist George Bernard Shaw in Dublin.
1865: The capital of New Zealand moves from Auckland to Wellington.
1875: Birth of Carl Jung, founder of analytic psychology, in Switzerland.
1882: Richard Wagner’s opera “Parsifal” premieres in Bayreuth, Germany.
1891: France annexes Tahiti.
1894: Birth of author Aldous Huxley in Godalming, Surrey.
1914: Philippe Thys of Belgium wins the Tour de France.
1917: J Edgar Hoover gets a job in the US Department of Justice.
1918: Race riot in Philadelphia.
1928: Gene Tunney TKOs Tom Heeney in Round 11 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1936: The Axis powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.
1945: Labour wins the general election and Clement Atlee becomes Britain’s first post Second World War prime minister. On the same day, the US cruiser Indianapolis reaches Tinian with the atom bomb on board. Physicist Raemer Schreiber and Lieutenant Colonel Peer de Silva depart Kirtland Army Air Field to transport the plutonium core to Tinian where the bomb to be dropped on Nagasaki is assembled.
1948: President Harry Truman issues Executive Order No. 9981 to desegregate the US armed forces, directing “equality of treatment and opportunity” in the military.
1952: Eva Peron, wife of the president of Argentina, Juan Peron, dies from cancer aged 33. On the same day, King Farouk I of Egypt abdicates.
1953: Fidel Castro leads a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks, intended to spark a revolution in Cuba. On the same day, Louison Bobet of France wins his first of three consecutive Tour de France titles.
1956: Egypt seizes and nationalises the Suez Canal to provide funding for the construction of the Aswan High Dam.
1957: The USSR launches the first intercontinental multistage ballistic missile. On the same day, Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator and president of Guatemala, is assassinated by a palace guard.
1963: A massive earthquake rocks the Yugoslavian city of Skopje, killing thousands.
1964: Teamsters President and US union leader Jimmy Hoffa convicted of fraud and conspiracy.
1965: The Maldives gains independence from Britain.
1969: Sharon Sites Adams, 39, becomes the first woman to sail solo across the Pacific.
1971: Apollo 15 is launched for the fourth manned landing on Moon.
1973: Peter Shaffers “Equus” premieres in London.
1974: The USSR’s Soyuz fails to dock with Salyut 3.
1977: Led Zeppelin cut short their 11th North American tour after Robert Plant’s five-year-old-son Karac dies unexpectedly of a virus in England.
1981: Singles chart:
- Green Door – Shakin’ Stevens
- Ghost Town – The Specials
- Chant No1 – Spandau Ballet,
- Happy Birthday – Stevie Wonder
- Stars On 45 – Starsound
- Can Can – Bad Manners
- Hooked On Classics – Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
- Body Talk – Imagination
- Lay All Your Love On Me – ABBA
- Dancing On The Floor – Third World
- Love Songs – Cliff Richard
- Secret Combination – Randy Crawford
- Stars On 45 – Starsound
- Kim Wilde – Kim Wilde
- No Sleep Til Hammersmith – Motorhead
- Cats – Original cast
- High Infidelity – REO Speedwagon
- Hotter Than July – Stevie Wonder
- Kings Of The Wild Frontier – Adam and the Ants
- Duran Duran – Duran Duran
1983: Mother of 10,Victoria Gillick fails at the High Court to prevent doctors prescribing contraception to under-16s without parental consent. On the same day, light flashes are seen on Jupiter’s moon Io.
1986: Lebanese kidnappers released Rev Lawrence Martin Jenco.
1987: Stephen Roche of Ireland wins the Tour de France.
1991: Actor Paul Rubens (Pee Wee Herman) is arrested in Florida, for exposing himself at an adult movie theatre.
1992: Singer Mary Wells dies aged 49 of laryngeal cancer.
1993: The Mars Observer takes the first photo of Mars, from 5 billion km.
1994: A car bomb explodes outside the Israeli embassy in London. On the same day, comedy actor Terry Scott dies aged 67.
2000: Oasis are booed off stage during a show at the Paleo Festival in Switzerland after singer Liam Gallagher insults the audience of 35,000.
2005: Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery, NASA’s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster two years earlier. On the same day, Samir Geagea, the Lebanese Forces (LF) leader, is released after spending 11 years in a solitary confinement. His release came after the end of the Syrian occupation to Lebanon.
2006: The Rex acoustic guitar on which Sir Paul McCartney learned his first chords sold for £330,000 at an auction at EMI Studios, Abbey Road.
2013: Singer-songwriter JJ Cale died of a heart attack at the age of 74.
2017: US President Donald Trump announces policy to ban transgender people from the military, overturning Obama era changes. On the same day Britain announces it will ban gasoline and diesel cars by 2040.
2018: Facebook has the single worst day of any public company on the stock market – losing 19% or $119 billion market value.
BIRTHDAYS: Darlene Love (Wright), singer/actress 79; Dame Helen Mirren (Ilyena Lydia Vasilievna Mironoff), actress, 75; Sir Mick Jagger, singer-songwriter (The Rolling Stones) 77; Roger Taylor, drummer, (Queen) 71; Susan George, actress, 70; Kevin Spacey, actor, 61; Gary Cherone, singer (Extreme) 59; Sandra Bullock, 56; Jeremy Piven, actor, 55; Jason Statham, actor, 53; Kate Beckinsale, actress, 47; Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand, 40; Taylor Momsen, singer/actor, 27; Stormzy (Michael Owuo) rapper, 27.