1187: Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, destroys Jerusalem’s crusader army.
1250: Louis IX of France is captured by Baibars’ Mamluk army at the Battle of Fariskur in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade. He later has to ransom himself.
1608: Samuel de Champlain founds the city of Quebec.
1661: Portugal gives Tangier and Bombay to Charles II of England.
1767: Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret.
1778: British forces massacre 360 men, women and children in Wyoming. On the same day, Prussia declares war on Austria.
1849: The French enter Rome to restore Pope Pius IX to power.
1863: The Battle of Gettysburg ends in a major victory for the Union during the American Civil War.
1876: Montenegro declares war on Turkey.
1883: Birth of author Franz Kafka in Prague.
1886: In Germany, Karl Benz drives the first motor car.
1890: Idaho is admitted as the 43rd US state. On the same day, King Leopold II gives Congo, previously a private possession, to Belgium.
1898: Joshua Slocum completes the first solo circumnavigation of the world.
1900: In an effort to stem growing popular resentment, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia issues a decree that abolishes the banishment of dissidents and troublemakers to Siberia.
1920: Bill Tilden, becomes the first American to win the Wimbledon Men’s Singles title, beating defending champion Gerald Patterson of Australia 2-6, 6-3, 6-2, 6-4.
1926: Britain’s Kitty Godfree wins her second Wimbledon Ladies’ singles title with a 6-2, 4-6, 6-3 victory over Spaniard Lilí Álvarez.
1928: John Logie Baird demonstrates the first colour television transmission in London.
1931: Max Schmeling beats American Young Stribling by a TKO in Round 15 in his first heavyweight title defence in Cleveland.
1936: Fred Perry beats Gottfried von Cramm of Germany 6-1, 6-1, 6-0 for his third straight Wimbledon singles title.
1940: British warships destroy the French fleet at Mers-el-Kebir, Algeria, to prevent Germany from seizing it.
1948: Louise Brough beats fellow American Doris Hart 6-3, 8-6 for the first of 3-straight Wimbledon singles titles. On the same day, American kidnapper Caryl Chessman is sentenced to death, although the execution doesn’t happen for 12 years.
1951: Sam Snead wins his third PGA golf tournament at Oakmont.
1954: Maureen Connolly wins her third consecutive Wimbledon Ladies’ singles title, beating fellow American Louise Brough 6-2, 7-5.
1959: South African Gary Player wins the British Open at Muirfield.
1964: Roy Emmerson beats fellow Australian Fred Stolle 6-4, 12-10, 4-6, 6-3; to win his first of two straight Wimbledon Men’s singles titles.
1966: Demonstrators in London are arrested after their protest against the Vietnam War turns violent.
1967: “News at 10” premieres on British TV.
1968: At an impromptu gathering at Joni Mitchell’s house in Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles, David Crosby, Stephen Stills and Graham Nash sang together for the very first time.
1969: Brian Jones drowned while taking a midnight swim in his pool, aged 27. A coroner recorded it as death by misadventure although theories have persisted that his head was held underwater by a workman in a dispute over money.
1971: Jim Morrison of The Doors was found dead in his bathtub in Paris, aged 27, the cause of death was given as a heart attack.
1972: Blues singer, guitarist Mississippi Fred McDowell died of cancer aged 68.
1973: David Bowie announced from the stage of The Hammersmith Odeon in London that he was retiring his Ziggy Stardust persona along with his band The Spiders From Mars. Only guitarist Mick Ronson knew beforehand and it came as a complete shock, not only to the audience, but the rest of Bowie’s band and crew.
1982: Martina Navratilova beats Chris Evert 6-1, 3-6, 6-2 for the first of six straight Wimbledon Ladies’ singles titles.
1986: U2 crew member Greg Carroll was killed in a motorcycle accident in Dublin while running an errand for Bono.
1989: Soviet leader Andrei Gromyko dies just short of his 80th birthday.
1994: Pete Sampras successfully defends his Wimbledon title against Goran Ivanišević of Croatia 7-6, 7-6, 6-0.
2004: Maria Sharapova becomes the first Russian player to win Wimbledon beating defending champion Serena Williams 6-1, 6-4.
2007: Pete Doherty eavoided jail after a judge decided to defer sentencing him for drugs offences on condition he went into rehab.
2008: Singer Kylie Minogue received an OBE for services to music from the Prince of Wales at Buckingham Palace.
BIRTHDAYS: Tom Stoppard, playwright, 83; Judith Durham, singer (The Seekers), 77; Vince Clarke, keyboardist/songwriter (Yazoo/Depeche Mode) 60; Tom Cruise, actor, 58; Tracey Emin, artist, 57; Yeardley Smith, voice of Lisa Simpson, 56; Martyn Walsh, bassist (Inspiral Carpets) 52; Kevin Hearn, keyboards/guitar/accordion (Barenaked Ladies) 51; Julian Assange, Wikileaks founder, 49; Patrick Wilson, actor, 47; Javier Weyler, drummer, (Stereophonics) 45; Shane Lynch, singer, (Boyzone) 45; Olivia Munn, actress, 40; Sebastian Vettel, F1 racing driver, 33.