762: The city of Baghdad is founded by Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur, just north of ancient Baghdad.
1678: English troops land in Flanders.
1729: The city of Baltimore is founded in Maryland, US.
1771: Death of poet Thomas Gray aged 54.
1775: Captain James Cook returns to England.
1811: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua, Mexico.
1818: Birth of novelist Emily Bronte in Thornton, West Yorkshire.
1863: President Abraham Lincoln issues “eye-for-eye” order to shoot a rebel prisoner for every black prisoner shot. On the same day, Chief Pocatello of the Shoshone tribe signs the Treaty of Box Elder, promising to stop harassing the emigrant trails in southern Idaho and northern Utah. Also, Henry Ford is born in Michigan.
1869: The Charles, considered the world’s first “oil tanker”, departs from the United States headed for Europe with a bulk capacity of 7,000 barrels of oil.
1898: Birth of sculptor Henry Moore in Castleford. On the same day, German “Iron” chancellor, Otto von Bismarck dies aged 83.
1900: Parliament passes several progressive social acts: a Mines Act, a Workmen’s Compensation Act and a Railway Act.
1907: Russia and Japan sign an agreement guaranteeing freedom of China while recognizing each other’s special interests. On the same day, the French bombard Casablanca and land troops to occupy the Atlantic-coast region of Morocco.
1909: French chemist Eugène Schueller founds L’Oréal with his new range of hair dyes.
1913: Conclusion of the Second Balkan War.
1928: George Eastman shows first amateur colour motion pictures to guests at his New York house including Thomas Edison.
1930: Uruguay beats Argentina, 4-2 to win the inaugural FIFA World Cup in Montevideo.
1932: The Summer Olympic Games open in Los Angeles.
1933: Fred Perry beats André Merlin 4-6, 8-6, 6-2, 7-5 to give Great Britain a 3-2 victory over France in the International Lawn Tennis Challenge.
1935: The first Penguin book is published, starting the paperback revolution.
1938: General Ioannis Metaxas names himself premier of Greece.
1939: Sylvère Maes of Belgium wins his third Tour de France.
1942: The German SS kills 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
1945: After delivering the Atomic Bomb across the Pacific, the cruiser USS Indianapolis is torpedoed and sunk by a Japanese submarine. 880 of the crew die, many after being attacked by sharks.
1948: Czech distance running legend Emil Zátopek wins the 10,000m at the London Olympics in 29:59.6 (OR).
1954: The British Empire Games and Commonwealth Games open in Vancouver.
1963: British spy Kim Philby is found in Moscow.
1964: Singles chart:
- A Hard Day’s Night – The Beatles
- It’s All Over Now – The Rolling Stones
- I Just Don’t Know What To Do With Myself – Dusty Springfield
- Call Up The Groups – The Barron Knights
- Doo Wah Diddy Diddy – Manfred Mann
- Hold Me – P J Proby
- House Of The Rising Sun – The Animals
- On The Beach – Cliff Richard
- I Won’t Forget You – Jim Reeves
- Tobacco Road – The Nashville Teens
1966: England win the FIFA World Cup, defeating West Germany 4-2 in extra time at Wembley Stadium. On the same day, US airplanes bomb demilitarized zone in Vietnam.
1967: Race riot in Milwaukee.
1968: The Beatles close their Apple Boutique in London after seven months of business, giving away all the stock to passers by and Apple Corps staff.
1969: In addition to recording overdubs, The Beatles began to assemble the “medley” that would make up side two of the album Abbey Road. Paul McCartney told tape operator John Kurlander to discard ‘Her Majesty’, which had been between the tracks “Mean Mr Mustard” and “Polythene Pam”, but rather than lose it, he tacked it onto the end of the tape 20 seconds after the end of the final track “The End”. That’s how it appeared on the album.
1971: Apollo 15 lands on the Moon.
1972: Album chart:
- 20 Dynamic Hits – Various Artists
- Greatest Hits – Simon and Garfunkel
- 20 Fantastic Hits – Various Artists
- The Slider – T Rex
- Never A Dull Moment – Rod Stewart
- School’s Out – Alice Cooper
- American Pie – Don McLean
- Slade Alive – Slade
- Elvis At Madison Square Garden – Elvis Presley
- The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars – David Bowie
1973: An 11-year legal battle ends with more than £20 million compensation for victims of the drug thalidomide.
1974: The House Judiciary Committee votes on the third and last charge of “high crimes & misdemeanors” to impeach President Nixon in the Watergate cover-up.
1975: US Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa disappears in suburban Detroit. He is never seen again.
1976: Four Protestant civilians are shot dead at a pub off Milltown Road, Belfast.
1980: Vanuatu (New Hebrides) gains independence from Britain and France.
1984: Alvenus tanker at Cameron, Louisiana, spills 2.8 million gallons of oil. Holly Roffey becomes the youngest person, aged 11 days, to receive a heart transplant. She dies 17 days later at the National Heart Hospital.
1986: The parents of missing London estate agent Suzy Lamplugh make an emotional appeal for her safe return. On the same day, RCA dropped John Denver from its roster after the release of his single, ‘What Are We Making Weapons For’. Variety magazine said the song upset the record company’s new owner, General Electric, one of the largest defence contractors in the US.
1988: King Hussain of Jordan renounces sovereignty over the West Bank to the PLO.
1991: A cop was forced to tear up a traffic ticket given to the limousine that Axl Rose was travelling in after it made an illegal turn. Rose threatened to pull that nights Guns n’ Roses gig if the ticket was issued.
1992: Yael Arad becomes Israel’s first ever Olympic medalist when she wins silver in the women’s 61kg judo in Barcelona. On the same day, cartoonist Joe Shuster, co-creator of Superman, dies aged 78.
1996: Hollywood legend Claudette Colbert dies from a stroke aged 93.
2003: Sam Phillips the founder of Sun Records and studio died of respiratory failure. He discovered Elvis Presley in 1954 and recorded what some consider to be the first rock and roll record, ‘Rocket 88’ by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (actually Ike Turner’s Rhythm Kings) in 1951. On the same day, the Rolling Stones, AC/DC, Rush, Justin Timberlake, The Flaming Lips and The Isley Brothers played a benefit concert in Toronto to prove that the city was safe from SARS. With 450,000 spectators, it was the largest concert in Canadian history.
2006: World’s longest running music show “Top of the Pops” is broadcast for the last time on BBC Two after 42 years.
2007: Death of Italian film director Michelangelo Antonioni aged 94. On the same day, legendary swedish director Ingmar Bergman dies aged 89. Also, Britney Spears divorces dancer/rapper Kevin Federline after two years of marriage.
2009: Procol Harum organist Matthew Fisher won his long battle to be recognised as co-writer of the band’s hit “A Whiter Shade Of Pale”. Law Lords ruled that Fisher, who claimed he wrote the song’s organ melody, was entitled to a share of future royalties. In 2006, the High Court ruled he was entitled to 40% of the copyright owned by singer/pianist Gary Brooker and lyricist Keith Reid, but the Court Of Appeal overturned the ruling in 2008 saying he waited too long, 38 years, to bring the case to court.
2011: Granddaughter of The Queen, equestrian, Zara Phillips, marries England rugby player Mike Tindall in Edinburgh.
2012: An Indian power grid failure leaves over 300 million without electricity. On the same day, General Motors sign a record breaking 7-year $559 million sponsorship deal with Manchester United. On the same day, Irish novelist Maeve Binchy (Snell) dies aged 72.
2013: Wikileaks discloser Bradley [later Chelsea] Manning is convicted of 17 espionage charges.
2014: The EU and US extend sanctions on Russia to include banks, energy, and defense firms. Moscow denies the allegation that Russia is arming rebels in Eastern Ukraine.
2015: Country music singer, Lynn Anderson, died aged 67.
2018: Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt mistakenly calls his Chinese-born wife “Japanese” in a meeting with his Chinese counterpart in Beijing.
2018: Australian Catholic Archbishop Philip Wilson resigns after being convicted of concealing sexual abuse.
2019: Electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk won a long-running legal battle over their song ‘Metal On Metal’, when The European Court of Justice ruled against the sampling of the track by hip-hop producers Moses Pelham and Martin Haas in 1999.
BIRTHDAYS: Buddy (George) Guy, blues artist, 84; Peter Bogdanovich, director, 81; Sir Clive Sinclair, inventor/entrepreneur, 80; Paul Anka, singer-songwriter, 79; Frances de la Tour, actress, 76; David Sanborn, saxophonist, 75; Jeffrey Hammond, artist/musician (Jethro Tull) 75; Arnold Schwarzenegger, actor/politician, 73; Jean Reno, actor, 72; Frank Stallone, actor, 70; Rat Scabies (Chris Miller), drummer (The Damned) 63; Kate Bush, singer-songwriter, 62; Daley Thompson, decathlete, 62; Richard Linklater, screenwriter/director, 60; Laurence Fishburne, actor, 59; isa Kudrow, actress, 57; Vivica A Fox, actress, 56; Jurgen Klinsmann, football manager, 56; Louise Wener, singer-songwriter/author (Sleeper) 52; Terry Crews, actor/former American footballer, 52; Sean Moore, drummer (Manic Street Preachers) 52; Sofie Gråbøl, actress, 52; Christopher Nolan, director, 50; Tom Green, comedian, ,49; Hilary Swank, actress, 46; Jason Robinson, former rugby player, 46; Diva Zappa, artist, 41; Justin Rose, golfer, 40; Yvonne Strahovski, actress, 38; Jimmy Anderson, cricketer, 38.