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1295: Scotland and France form an alliance against England.
1596: The English fleet captures Cadiz.
1687: Isaac Newton’s great work Principia is published by Royal Society, outlining his laws of motion and gravitation.
1791: Jose Maria Narvaez discovers Point Grey (now Vancouver).
1810: Birth of P T (Phineas Taylor) Barnum, American circus promoter and showman in Connecticut.
1811: Seven Venezuelan provinces declare independence from Spain.
1826: Stamford Raffles, British statesman and founder of Singapore dies at 44 of apoplexy.
1830: France invades Algeria.
1841: Thomas Cook opens his first travel agency.
1865: Britain creates the world’s first legal speed limit. On the same day, the US Secret Service begins operating under the auspices of the Treasury Department.
1914: Germany offers Austria war aid to fight against Russia in Serbia.
1919: Suzanne Lenglen of France beats Dorothea Chambers 10-8, 4-6, 9-7 for her first of six Wimbledon singles titles.
1932: António de Oliveira Salazar becomes the premier and dictator of Portugal.
1935: Fred Perry successfully defends his Wimbledon singles title against German Gottfried von Cramm 6-2, 6-4, 6-4.
1937: Spam is first introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
1943: Actress Betty Grable marries big band leader Harry James.
1944: Harry Crosby takes the first rocket airplane, MX-324, for its maiden flight.
1945: Clement Atlee’s Labour wins the general election. On the same day, the liberation of the Philippines is declared.
1946: Sam Snead wins the British Open at St Andrews.
1948: Britain’s National Health Service Act begins.
1950: US forces enter combat in the Korean War for the first time in the Battle of Osan. On the same day, the Law of Return passes, which guarantees all Jews the right to live in Israel.
1951: Dr William Shockley invents the junction transistor.
1952: Maureen Connolly beats Louise Brough 7-5, 6-3 for the first of three straight Wimbledon singles titles.
1954: Working together for the first time in a recording studio with Scotty Moore and Bill Black, Elvis Presley fools around during a break with an up-tempo version of Arthur Crudup’s ‘That’s Alright Mamma.’ Producer Sam Phillips has them repeat the jam and records it. It became Presley’s first release on Sun Records. On the same day, the BBC broadcasts its first daily television news bulletin with Richard Baker the newsreader.
1957: South African Bobby Locke wins his fourth British Open. On the same day, Frank Sinatra and Ava Gardner divorce after six years of marriage.
1958: Althea Gibson beats Angela Mortimer of England 8-6, 6-2 to successfully defend her Wimbledon Ladies’ singles title. On the same day, Australian Peter Thomson wins the british Open at Royal Lytham St Anne’s.
1959: David Ben Gurion’s Israeli government resigns.
1962: Algeria gains independence after 132 years of French rule.
1966: On the recommendation of Rolling Stone Keith Richards’ girlfriend, Chas Chandler of The Animals goes to see Jimi Hendrix play at Cafe Wha in New York City. Chandler suggests that Hendrix should come to England, which he does and Chandler becomes his manager. On the same day, the Saturn I rocket is launched at Cape Kennedy.
1968: Rod Laver beats fellow Australian Tony Roche 6-3, 6-4, 6-2 to earn first ever prize money (£2,000) offered at Wimbledon.
1969: The Rolling Stones played a free concert in London’s Hyde Park with Mick Jagger reading two stanzas of Percy Bysshe Shelley‘s poem on John Keats‘s death, Adonaïs, in memory of Brian Jones before hundreds of cabbage white butterflies were released as the band began playing. On the same day, Rod Laver beats John Newcombe 6-4, 5-7, 6-4, 6-4 in the Wimbledon Men’s final for the third leg of his Grand Slam.
1972: Two Protestant brothers were found shot dead outside Belfast. It was speculated they had been executed by Loyalist paramilitaries because they had Catholic girlfriends.
1973: General Juvenal Habyarimana becomes president of Rwanda in a military coup d’état. Aso on this day, the test cricket debut of English umpire Harold “Dickie” Bird v NZ at Headingley.
1974: Chris Evert wins her first Wimbledon title beating Olga Morzova 6-0, 6-4.
1975: Pink Floyd, Captain Beefheart, Steve Miller and Roy Harper appear at The Knebworth Festival near Stevenage, Herts. On the same day, Keith Richards is arrested by the highway patrol in Arkansas on charges of reckless driving and possessing an offensive weapon, a seven-inch hunting knife. On the same day, the Cape Verde Islands gain independence after 500 years of Portuguese rule and Arthur Ashe becomes the first African American to win Wimbledon, beating Jimmy Connors 6-1, 6-1, 5-7, 6-4.
1977: The Pakistani army, led by Gen Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, seizes power.
1978: The pressing of Some Girls, the new album by The Rolling Stones was haltedafter complaints from celebrities including Lucille Ball who were featured in mock advertisements on the sleeve.
1980: Bjorn Borg beats John McEnroe 1-6, 7-5, 6-3, 6-7, 8-6 for his fifth straight Wimbledon crown.
1981: Rioting and looting breaks out in Toxteth, Liverpool.
1982: Sun records musical director Bill Justis died of cancer aged 55. He was responsible for the instrumental Raunchy, which was the song George Harrison played for John Lennon on the top deck of a Liverpool bus in 1957 (suggested by Paul McCartney) as an audition to join what became The Beatles.
1983: France invades Algeria.
1987: Pat Cash of Australia scores his only Grand Slam singles success 7-6, 6-2, 7-5 over Ivan Lendl at Wimbledon.
1991: The Bank of Credit and Commerce International closes UK branches over fraud allegations.
1994: Amazon.com is founded by Jeff Bezos.
1996: Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, is born in Scotland.
1997: 16-year old Martina Hingis beats Jana Novotná 2-6, 6-3, 6-3 to become the youngest Wimbledon winner in 110 years.
2003: SARS is declared “contained” by the WHO after affecting 26 countries and resulting in 774 deaths.
2007: English jazz and blues singer and film critic George Melly died at his London home at the age of 80 of lung cancer and vascular dementia. On the same day, burlesque dancer Dita Von Teese divorces rocker Marilyn Manson due to irreconcilable differences after a year of marriage.
2012: The Shard, the tallest building in Europe at 1,016ft, is opened in London.
2015: The US beats Japan, 5-2 to win the FIFA Women’s World Cup in Canada.
2017: Arsenal breaks the club transfer record, paying about €53m for Lyon striker Alexandre Lacazette.
2019: Former governor of Rio de Janeiro, Sérgio Cabral says he paid a $2 million bribe to secure votes for his city to be granted 2016 Olympics.
BIRTHDAYS: Robbie Robertson, guitarist/songwriter (The Band) 77; Huey Lewis, singer/songwriter, 70; Marc Cohn, singer-songwriter, 61; Edie Falco, actress, 57; Gianfranco Zola, football coach, 54; Bengt Fredrik Lagerburg, drummer (The Cardigans) 47; Roisin Murphy, singer, 47; Shane Filan, singer (Westlife) 41; Amélie Mauresmo, tennis player, 41; Dave Haywood, singer-songwriter (Lady A) 38; Nick O’Malley, bassist (Arctic Monkeys) 35; Megan Rapinoe, US Ladies soccer star, 35.