1401: Turko-Mongol ruler Tamerlane destroys Baghdad, killing 20,000.
1540: Henry VIII annuls his six month marriage to his fourth wife Anne of Cleves on the grounds of non-consummation and her pre-contract to Francis of Lorraine.
1766: Lord Rockingham resigns as Prime Minister.
1807: The Second Treaty of Tilsit is signed by France, Russia and Prussia.
1810: Napoleon annexes the Kingdom of Holland as part of the First French Empire.
1816: Argentina declares independence from Spain.
1850: US President Zachary Taylor dies in the White House aged 65.
1877: The first ever Wimbledon tennis championship begins – men’s singles only.
1893: Surgeon Daniel Hale Williams III repairs the torn pericardium of a knife wound patient without penicillin or a blood transfusion.
1916: Birth of prime minister Edward Heath in Broadstairs.
1917: British battleship HMS Vanguard explodes at Scapa Flow due to faulty cordite, killing 807.
1926: Chiang Kai-shek is appointed to national-revolutionary supreme commander in China.
1934: SS-Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler takes command of German concentration camps.
1937: Henry Cotton wins his second British Open at Carnoustie.
1944: US troops secure Saipan as Japan falls.
1947: Buckingham Palace announces the engagement of Princess Elizabeth and Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten.
1954: Elvis Presley, Scotty Moore and Bill Black record Blue Moon of Kentucky – the B side of his first single – at Sam Phillips’ Sun Studio in Memphis
1955: The Russell-Einstein Manifesto is released by philosopher Bertrand Russell on the need to avoid nuclear war.
1957: The discovery of element 102 (Nobelium) is announced.
1958: Johnny Cash signs with Columbia Records, where he remains for the next 30 years.
1962: Bob Dylan records Blowin’ In the Wind at Columbia Recording Studios in New York.On the same day, Andy Warhol’s first West Coast exhibition opens in the Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles.
1964: Singles chart:
- House Of The Rising Son – The Animals
- It’s All Over Now – The Rolling Stones
- Hold Me – P J Proby
- Someone Someone – Brian Poole and the Tremeloes
- It’s Over – Roy Orbison
- Ramona – The Bachelors
- You’re No Good – The Swinging Blue Jeans
- I Won’t Forget You – Jim Reeves
- Hello Dolly – Louis Armstrong
- Kissin’ Cousins – Elvis Presley
1965: Otis Redding starts recording sessions at Stax Studios in Memphis, for what will become his third studio album Otis Blue.
1966: Jack Nicklaus wins the British Open at Muirfield.
1967: Album chart:
- Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band – The Beatles
- Headquarters – The Monkees
- The Sound Of Music – Original Soundtrack
- More Of The Monkees – The Monkees
- Fiddler On The Roof – Original London Cast
- The Monkees – The Monkees
- This Is James Last – James Last
- Release me – Engelbert Humperdinck
- Live At The Talk Of The Twn – Tom Jones
- Going Places Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass
1969: Working on the Abbey Road album, The Beatles begin a long and laborious session to record Paul’s song Maxwell’s Silver Hammer. John Lennon returned to the studio after recovering from a car crash in Scotland, and a bed was installed in the studio for Yoko Ono, who was pregnant. The song takes the longest to get down of all Beatles songs with constant run throughs going back to January’s Get Back/Let It Be sessions at Twickenham until the backing track was finally done to Paul’s satisfaction.
1971: David Bowie begins recording sessions with producer Ken Scott at Trident Studios in London, for what will become the album The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust And The Spiders From Mars. On the same day, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger visits the People’s Republic of China to negotiate a detente between the US and China.
1972: Wings play their very first show in the small French town of Chateauvillon. It is Paul McCartney’s first time on the road in six years. On the same day, a ceasefire between the Provisional IRA and the British Army comes to an end and in what becomes known as the Springhill Massacre, snipers shoot dead five Catholic civilians and wound two others in Springhill, Belfast.
1976: Uganda asks the UN to condemn the Israeli hostage rescue raid on Entebbe Airport. On the same day, Terry Neill becomes manager of Arsenal after Bertie Mee retires.
1977: Tom Watson wins the British Open at Turnberry. On the same day, Declan McManus quits his day job at Elizabeth Arden Cosmetics to become full time musician Elvis Costello.
1979: Voyager 2 flies past Jupiter. On the same day, a car bomb destroys a Renault owned by “Nazi hunters” Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France.
1980: Seven die in a stampede to see Pope John Paul II in Brazil.
1982: Unemployed father-of-four, Michael Fagan, breaks into Buckingham Palace and spends ten minutes talking to the Queen in her bedroom. On the same day, Ian Botham scores 208 in 225 balls for England v India at The Oval.
1984: A massive fire causes extensive damage to York Minster.
1987: In the US, Colonel Oliver North admits to shredding Iran-Contra evidence.
1989: New Edition’s production manager was charged with criminal homicide after allegedly shooting a support act’s security man after they ran over their stage time.
1990: New Zealand cricket legend Richard Hadlee takes 5-53 in the third Test v England at Edgbaston to end his test career with 431 wickets.
1991: The closure of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International loses local councils up to £90m in investments. On the same day, South Africa is readmitted to the Olympics.
2000: Police fire tear gas at fans during a World Cup qualifying soccer game between Zimbabwe and South Africa, setting off a stampede that kills 12 people in Harare.
2001: The Office by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant premieres on BBC 2.
2002: Death of actor Rod Steiger, aged 77.
2004: David Bowie is forced to cancel a string of European shows after it transpires he had undergone emergency heart surgery weeks earlier.
2006: French star Zinedine Zidane is sent off in the World Cup final in Berlin for headbutting Italian defender Marco Materazzi. Italy eventually won on penalties.
2010: During a Santana concert at First Midwest Bank Amphitheatre in Tinley Park, Illinois, guitarist Carlos Santana proposes to girlfriend, Cindy Blackman who had just finished a drum solo during the band’s set.
2013: Singer Lauryn Hill begins a three-month prison sentence in Connecticut for tax evasion. On the same day, Junior Bradshaw who was involved in a plot to rob and murder soul singer Joss Stone was jailed for 18 years.
2015: AC/DC drummer Phil Rudd is sentenced in New Zealand to eight months house detention for drug possession and making threats to kill.
2017: Wayne Rooney announces he will leave Manchester United after 13 years to rejoin his first club, Everton. On the same day, Iraqi prime miniser Haider al-Abadi proclaims victory over Islamic State forces in Mosul.
2018: Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson resigns over prime minister Theresa May’s softer stance on Brexit. He is succeeded by Jeremy Hunt. On the same day, former Foreign Secretary, Lord Carrington, dies aged 99.
2019: Northern Ireland MPs vote to extend same-sex marriage and make abortion legal to bring it in line with rest of UK. ON the same day, actor Rip Torn dies aged 88.
BIRTHDAYS: David Hockney, artist, 84; Dean Koontz, author, 76; O J (Orenthal James) Simpson, American footballer/broadcaster/actor, 74; John Frieda, celebrity hairstylist, 70; Chris Cooper, actor, 70; Steve Coppell, footballer/manager, 66; Jimmy Smits, actor, 66; Tom Hanks, actor/film-maker, 65; Paul Merton, comedian, 64; Kelly McGillis, actress, 64; Tim Kring, screenwriter, 64; Jim Kerr, singer-songwriter (Simple Minds) 62; Marc Almond, singer -songwriter (Soft Cell) 62; Courtney Love, singer-songwriter/guitarist (Hole) 57; Gianluca Vialli, footballer/manager, 57; Paolo Di Canio, footballer, 53; Isaac Brock, singer/guitarist (Modest Mouse) 46; Jack White, (John Gillis), singer-songwriter/guitarist (The White Stripes/Raconreurs) 46; Fred Savage, child actor/director, 45; Ashley Young, footballer, 36.