193: Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated.
1215: Beijing is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan.
1495: First written record of Scotch Whisky appears in Exchequer Rolls of Scotland.
1533: Anne Boleyn is crowned Queen of England.
1670: Charles II and French King Louis XIV sign a secret anti-Dutch treaty.
1676: Allied Danish-Dutch forces defeat the Swedish navy in the Baltic Sea at the Battle of Oland in the Scanian War.
1746: French troops conquer Antwerp.
1792: Kentucky is admitted as 15th US state.
1796: The last British troops withdraw from the US. On the same day, Tennessee is admitted as the 16th US state.
1815: Napoleon Bonaparte swears fidelity to the Constitution of France.
1861: First skirmish in the American Civil War at Fairfax Court House, Virginia.
1862: African Slave Trade Treaty Act: Bilateral treaty between the US and UK abolishing the slave trade in all US possessions.
1868: The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed, allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.
1869: Thomas Edison is granted his first patent for the Electric Vote Recorder.
1881: Fred Archer wins the Epsom Derby on Iroquois.
1900: The British army occupies Pretoria, South Africa.
1922: The Royal Ulster Constabulary is founded.
1930: Helen Wills Moody wins her third straight French tennis title, beating fellow American Helen Jacobs 6-2, 6-1.
1933: Charlie Chaplin marries Paulette Goddard.
1935: The driving test and license plates are introduced in England.
1943: Germany shoots down a civilian flight from Lisbon to London. No one survives.
1962: Adolf Eichmann is is executed in Israel after being found guilty of war crimes.
1966: During a 12 hour session at Abbey Road studios, The Beatles added overdubs to ‘Yellow Submarine’, with John Lennon blowing bubbles in a bucket of water and shouting “Full speed ahead Mister Captain!” Roadie Mal Evans played a bass drum strapped to his chest, marching around the studio with the band following behind in line singing the chorus.
1967: The release date in the UK for Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, although it had already been available unofficially for five days.
1971: The two-room shack in Tupelo, Mississippi, where Elvis Presley was born opens as a tourist attraction.
1972: West German police arrest Red Army Faction leader Andreas Baader.
1973: Soft Machine drummer Robert Wyatt broke his spine after attempting to leave a party by climbing down a drainpipe and falling three stories. The accident left him wheelchair-bound.
1975: Ronnie Wood replaces Mick Taylor in The Rolling Stones on his 28th birthday.
1976: Britain and Iceland end the “cod war”.
1978: David Gower makes his Test debut against Pakistan in Birmingham.
1991: Former member of The Temptations, David Ruffin, died of a cocaine overdose.
1999: Death of Christopher Cockerell, inventor of the hovercraft, aged 88.
2008: Death of fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent aged 71.
2009: Death of racehorse trainer Vincent O’Brien aged 92.
2017: President Donald Trump announces the US is withdrawing from the Paris Climate Agreement.
2019: Liverpool beats Tottenham, 2-0 to win the Champions League in Madrid.
BIRTHDAYS: Pat Boone, singer, 86; Gerald Scarfe, illustrator, 84; Morgan Freeman, actor, 83; Robert Powell, actor, 76; Brian Cox, actor, 74; Ronnie Wood, guitarist (Rolling Stones) 73; Jonathan Pryce, actor, 73; Tom Robinson, singer/broadcaster, 70; Gemma Craven, actress, 70; Martin Brundle, motor racing commentator, 61; Simon Gallup, bassist (The Cure) 60; Mike Joyce, drummer (The Smiths) 57; Jason Donovan, singer/actor, 52; Damon Minchella, bassist (Ocean Colour Scene) 51; Heidi Klum, model/TV presenter 47; Alanis Morissette, singer/songwriter, 46; Amy Schumer, comedian, 39; Javier Hernandez, footballer, 32; Heloise Letissier (Christine and the Queens), singer/songwriter, 32; Tom Holland, actor, 24.