323BC: Death of Alexander the Great aged 32.
1190: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa drowns while crossing the Saleph River (modern Turkey) in the Third Crusade.
1540: Thomas Cromwell is arrested in Westminster.
1692: The first victim of the Salem witch trials, Bridget Bishop, is hanged for witchcraft in the colony of Massachusetts.
1752: Benjamin Franklin tests the lightning conductor with his kite-flying experiment.
1793: The first public zoo opens in Paris.
1829: The first Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Race takes place.
1845: Former US President Andrew Jackson’s African Grey parrot “Poll” is removed from his funeral for swearing.
1865: Richard Wagner’s opera “Tristan und Isolde” premieres in Munich.
1898: US Marines land in Cuba during the Spanish-American War.
1900: In China, a relief column of 2,000 men set out from Tientsin to relieve foreigners trapped in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion.
1915: British and French troops conquer the German colony of Cameroon.
1931: Norway occupies East Greenland.
1932: Gene Sarazen wins the British Open Men’s Golf tournament.
1933: John Dillinger robs his first bank in Ohio, making off with $10,600. On the same day, Bonnie and Clyde flip their car into a ravine in north Texas. Parker suffers third degree burns to her legs.
1934: Italy wins the second World Cup, beating Czechoslovakia 2-1 in Rome. On the same day, composer Frederick Delius dies aged 72.
1940: Italy declares war on France and Britain as part of its Axis alliance with Nazi Germany. On the same day, Canada declares war against Italy and Norway surrenders to Germany.
1943: Heinrich Himmler orders the final liquidation of the Lodz ghetto in occupied Poland.
1944: Nazi forces carry out a massacre of 642 civilians in the French village Oradour-sur-Glane. Also, in Distomo, Greece, 218 men, women and children are massacred by German troops.
1946: Boxer Jack Johnson dies in a car accident aged 68.
1947: Saab produces its first car.
1966: Steve Marriott of The Small Faces collapsed while performing on thr TV show Ready Steady Go.
1967: Israel, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt end the “6-Day War” with UN help. On the same day, actor Spencer Tracy dies aged 67.
1968: Australia beats France 20-2 in the Rugby League World Cup. On the same day, Italy wins the European Championships in a replay in Rome, beating Yugoslavia 2-0.
1975: The Rockefeller panel reports on 300,000 illegal CIA files on Americans.
1977: Joe Strummer and Topper Headon were each fined £5 for spray paining The Clash on a wall. On the same day. Martin Luther King’s killer, James Earl Ray, escapes from prison.
1979: Chris Evert beats Wendy Turnbull of Australia 6-2, 6-0 for her third French singles crown.
1980: Eight Provisional IRA prisoners escape from Crumlin Road Jail in Belfast using handguns smuggled into prison.
1981: The IRA’s Joseph Doherty escapes from Crumlin Road Jail in Belfast. On the same day, Sebastian Coe sets a world 800m record (1:41.73) in Florence.
1982: Film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder dies of a drug overdose aged 37.
1984: Ivan Lendl wins his first grand slam title at the french Open, beating John McEnroe 3-6, 2-6, 6-4, 7-5, 7-5.
1985: Claus von Bulow is acquitted on charges he tried to murder his wife.
1989: Arantxa Sánchez Vicario of Spain wins her first Grand Slam singles title at the French Open, beating Steffi Graf 7-6, 3-6, 7-5.
1991: Singer Eddie Kendricks was arrested while attending the funeral of former Temptations bandmate David Ruffin in Detroit on charges of owing $26,000 in child support.
1993: Sinead O’Connor took out a full-page ad in the Irish Times asking the public to “stop hurting me please.” On the same day, comedian Les Dawsom dies.aged 58.
1995: Steffi Graf beats Arantxa Sánchez Vicario 7-5, 4-6, 6-0 to win her fourth French Open title.
1996: Intel releases the releases the 200 mhz pentium chip.
1997: Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief Son Sen and 11 of Sen’s family members before fleeing his northern stronghold.
1999: NATO suspends air stikes after Slobodan Milosevic agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.
2000: France’s Mary Pierce beats Conchita Martinez of Spain 6-2, 7-5 to win the French Open. On the same day, Syrian President General Hafez al-Hassad dies from a heart attack aged 69.
2003: The Spirit Rover is launched, beginning NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover mission.
2004: Ray Charles dies aged 73.
2012: Maria Sharapova wins her first French Open title, beating Sara Errani of Italy 6-3, 6-2.
2016: Rod Stewart was knighted in the Queen’s Birthday Honours list for services to music and charity.
BIRTHDAYS: Price Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 99; Jurgen Prochnow, actor, 79; Sir Lindsay Hoyle, Speaker of the House of Commons, 63; Carlo Ancelotti, Everton manager, 61; Kim Deal, bassist/guitarist (Pixies/The Breeders), 59; Kelley Deal, guitarist/singer (The Breeders) 59; Maxi Priest (Elliott), singer, 59; Gina Gershon, actress, 58; Jeanne Tripplehorn, actress, 57; Joey Santiago, guitarist (Pixies) 55; Elizabeth Hurley, actress, 55; David Platt, former footballer, 54; Bill Burr, comedian, 52; Leelee Sobieski, actress, 37; Tinchy Stryder, (Kwasi Danquah) rapper, 33.