763BC: Assyrians record a solar eclipse that will be used to fix the chronology of Mesopotamian history.
1215: King John signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede.
1246: With the death of Duke Frederick II, the Babenberg dynasty ends in Austria.
1330: Birth of Edwatd the Black Prince.
1381: Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants’ Revolt, is beheaded in London.
1389: Turks defeat Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo.
1567: Protestant troops beat Earl Bothwell’s army at the Battle of Carberry n Scotland.
1626: Charles I disbands Parliament.
1667: The first fully documented human blood transfusion is performed by French physician, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, when a small amount of sheep’s blood is transfused into a 15-year old boy who survives. It’s unknown if he had to shave in a special way after.
1762: Austria uses the first paper currency.
1775: George Washington is appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
1785: Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and Pierre Romain, two French balloonists, die in the world’s first fatal aviation accident.
1808: Joseph Bonaparte becomes King of Spain.
1843: Birth of composer Edvard Grieg in Bergen, Norway.
1844: Chemist Charles Goodyear patents the vulcanization of rubber.
1849: Former US President James Knox Polk dies of cholera aged 53.
1864: The Battle of Petersburg begins as General Ulysses S Grant assaults the Confederate line in the American Civil War.
1878: The world’s first moving pictures caught on camera (12 cameras, each taking one picture) to see if all four of a horse’s hooves leave the ground.
1887: Carlisle D Graham survives his second ride over Niagara Falls in a barrel.
1888: Wilhelm II becomes Emperor of Germany.
1896: A Tsunami strikes a Shinto festival on the beach at Sanriku, Japan, killing 27,000.
1898: The US House of Representatives passes a resolution to annex Hawaii. On the same day, US marines attack the Spanish off Guantánamo, Cuba.
1903: The Serbian Assembly elects Prince Peter Karageorgevich king.
1907: Researcher George Soper publishes the results of his investigation into recent typhoid outbreaks in the New York area and announces that Mary Mallon – later known as Typhoid Mary – is the likely source of the outbreak.
1917: In order to calm troubled relations with Ireland, the British grant amnesty to prisoners taken during the Easter Rising of 1916.
1919: The first nonstop Atlantic flight (Alcock & Brown) lands in Ireland.
1920: African American circus workers, Elias Clayton, Elmer Jackson and Isaac McGhie are taken from jail and lynched by a white mob of thousands in Duluth, Minnesota.
1924: J Edgar Hoover assumes leadership of the FBI.
1940: France surrenders to Nazi Germany. On the same day, the Soviet Army occupies Lithuania.
1954: Britain’s two biggest steel factories are nationalised. On the same day, EUFA is formed in Basle, Switzerland.
1955: The IOC votes to award Rome the rights to host the 1960 Summer Olympic Games.
1958: The first teenage all-music TV show Oh Boy!, was broadcast for the first time in the UK.
1960: Argentina complains to the UN about Israel’s illicit transfer of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann.
1963: Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion resigns.
1964: The last French troops leave Algeria.
1968: Jazz guitarist Wes Montgomery dies from a heart attack aged 45.
1972: A rock fall inside the Vierzy Tunnel in France causes two trains to crash, killing 107. On the same day, West German police arrest terror group leader Ulrike Meinhof.
1974: Chris Evert beats Olga Morozova of Russia 6-1, 6-2 to win her first French Open tennis title.
1977: The Sex Pistols held a party on a boat as it sailed down The River Thames in London. The Pistols performed ‘Anarchy In The UK’ outside The Houses Of Parliament resulting in members from the party being arrested when the boat docked later that day. On the same day, Spain holds its first free elections since 1936.
1980: Golfer Jack Nicklaus sets a new tournament scoring record 272 (-8) to win his fourth US Open title.
1982: Riots break out in Argentina after Falklands/Malvinas defeat.
1983: The first episode of Black Adder is shown on BBC1.
1984: Boxer Thomas “Hitman” Hearns retains the WBC light middleweight title with a round 2 KO of Roberto Durán.
1985: Pinklon Thomas KO’s Mike Weaver in Round 8 for the WBC heavyweight boxing title. On the same day, Russian space probe Vega 2 lands on Venus.
1987: Michael Spinks TKOs Gerry Cooney in Round 5 for the WBA heavyweight boxing title.
1991: The eruption of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines is the second-largest volcanic eruption on Earth of the 20th century.
1992: US vice president Dan Quayle instructs a Trenton, New Jersey, elementary student to spell potato, “potatoe” during a spelling bee.
1993: Former F1 champion and broadcaster James Hunt dies aged 45.
1996: An IRA bomb wrecks Manchester city centre, injuring 200. On the same day, jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald dies in Beverly Hills, California, aged 79.
1997: Golfer Ernie Els wins the US Open.
2010: Film star Harrison Ford marries actress and Golden Globe winner Calista Flockhart in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
2011: Two men from Manchester were held on suspicion of conspiracy to rob and murder after being arrested close to the Devon home of the singer Joss Stone.
2017: Film star Rebel Wilson wins a defamation case against Bauer Media at The Supreme Court of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.
2018: Prof Stephen Hawking’s ashes are interred in Westminster Abbey between Sir Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin. On the same day, Glasgow School of Art burns down four years after a previous fire.
2019: Death of film director Franco Zeffirelli aged 96.
BIRTHDAYS: Muff (Melvyn) Winwood, musician/songwriter (Spencer Davis Group) 77; Noddy Holder, singer-guitarist/broadcaster, 74; Simon Callow, actor, 71; Steve Walsh, singer (Kansas) 69; Xi Jinping, leader of China, 67; James Belushi, actor, 66; Julie Hagerty, actress, 65; Neil Arthur, singer, Blancmange, 62; Helen Hunt, actress, 57; Courtenay Cox, actress, 56; Michael Laudrup, former footballer, 56; Ice Cube (O’Shea Jackson), rapper/actor, 51; Oliver Kahn, former footballer, 51; Leah Remini, actress, 50; Jake Busey, actor, 49; Neil Patrick Harris, actor, 47; Tore André Flo, former footballer, 47; Gary Lightboddy, singer-guitarist/songwriter (Snow Patrol) 44; Nadine Coyle, singer (Girls Aloud) 35; Mohamed Salah, footballer, 28.