1487: Henry VII beats John de la Pole & Lord Lovell at the Battle of Stoke Field – the last major engagement in the War of the Roses.
1567: Mary, Queen of Scots is imprisoned in Lochleven Castle prison.
1624: Virginia becomes an English crown colony.
1779: US General Anthony Wayne captures Stony Point, New York, inflicting heavy losses on the British. On the same day, Spain declares war on Britain in support of the US, starting the siege of Gibraltar.
1784: Holland forbids the wearing of orange clothes.
1815: The French army under Napoleon defeats Prussia at the Battle of Ligny.
1829: Birth of Apache leader Geronimo in Mexico.
1858: Abraham Lincoln accepts the Illinois Republican Party’s nomination for the US Senate.
1880: The Salvation Army forms in London.
1890:Birth of Stan Laurel (Arthur Atanley Jefferson) in Ulverston, England.
1903: The Pepsi Cola Company forms.
1904: Eugen Schauman assassinates Nikolai Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland.
1907: Tsar Nicolas II of Russia dissolves the Second Duma (parliament) and issues an edict that will increase representation of propertied classes while reducing that of peasants, workers and minorities.
1908: The Republican Party convenes in Chicago where President Theodore Roosevelt chooses William Howard Taft as his successor.
1913: The South African Government passes the Native Land Act, which restricts purchase or lease of land by native Africans.
1915: Formation of the Women’s Institute.
1922: Henry Berliner demonstrates his helicopter to the US Bureau of Aeronautics. On the same day, Irish republicans are beaten in a national election. The vote is in favour of the Treaty of London, which leaves the Irish Free State as a dominion within the Commonwealth.
1932: US President Herbert Hoover and Vice President Charles Curtis are renominated by the Republican Convention.
1940: A communist government is installed in Lithuania.
1944: George Stinney, a 14-year-old African-American boy, is wrongfully executed for the murder of two white girls, becoming the youngest person ever executed in 20th-century America. On the same day, George VI visits General Montgomery’s HQ in Normandy.
1951: Ben Hogan wins his second consecutive US Open gold title.
1955: Pope Pius XII ex-communicates Argentine President Juan Peron.
1956: Poet Laureate Ted Hughes marries American poet/writer Sylvia Plath in London.
1959: TV Superman George Reeves dies from a gunshot to the head aged 45. The coroner rules it as suicide but mystery remains over the complete absence of fingerprints on the gun or gunpowder residue on the body. Theories include a mafia hit or murder by Reeves’ fiancee.
1961: Soviet ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev defects to the eest at Le Bourget Airport in Paris.
1963: Levi Eshkol replaces David Ben-Gurion as Israeli prime minister. On the same day, the first female astronaut, Valentina Tereshkova, launches into space aboard Vostok 6.
1964: The Rolling Stones pay £1,500 in air fares from America back to the UK to honour a booking made a year earlier for £100 at Magdalen College Oxford.
1965: Bob Dylan records the song “Like A Rolling Stone” at Columbia Recording Studios in New York.
1967: The three-day Monterey Pop Festival began featuring Janis Joplin, The Who, The Mamas and Papas, Otis Redding and Jimi Hendrix.
1968: Lee Trevino wins his first major golf title, beating Jack Nicklaus to take the US Open.
1970: Race riots break out in Miami, Florida.
1971: Racial disturbance in Jacksonville, Florida.
1974: Bjorn Borg of Sweden wins first career Grand Slam title, beating Manuel Orantes of Spain 2-6, 6-7, 6-0, 6-1, 6-1 to take the French Open men’s singles tennis title.
1976: Students in Soweto, South Africa, march against the use of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction in Black secondary schools.
1977: Leonid Brezhnev is named Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. On the same day, rocket scientist Werner von Braun dies aged 65.
1980: The Blues Brothers, directed by Jon Landis and starring Dan Aykroyds and John Belushi premieres in Chicago.
1982: Pretenders guitarist James Honeyman-Scott died following sustained cocaine and heroin addiction.
1983: Pope John Paul II visits Poland. On the same day, Yuri Andropov is appointed President of the Soviet Union.
1984: Athlete Ed Moses wins his 100th consecutive 400-metre hurdles race.
1985: US athlete Willie Banks sets triple jump record (58 feet 11 inches) in Indianapolis.
1988: Vince Neil of Motley Crue married mud wrestler and fashion model Sharisse Rudell.
1992: Former US Secretary of Defence, Caspar Weinberger is indicted over the Iran-contra affair.
1994: Kristen Pfaff best known as the bassist for alternative rock band Hole was found dead in her bathtub due to a heroin overdose aged 26.
1996: Beginning of the two-day Tibetan Freedom Concert in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco starring Rage Against The Machine, The Red Hot Chili Peppers, Smashing Pumpkins and Sonic Youth.
1999: Singer and founder of the Monster Raving Loony Party, Screaming Lord (David) Sutch was found dead after hanging himself aged 58. On the same day, Thabo Mbeki is elected second President of a democratic South Africa.
2002: Tiger Woods wins his second US Open title, three shots ahead of runner-up Phil Mickelson.
2007: Rod Stewart married model/photographer girlfriend Penny Lancaster on the Italian Riviera.
2008: Tiger Woods wins his third US Open and 14th major golfing title.
2010: Guitarist Gary Shider of Parliament-Funkadelic died from cancer of the brain and lungs.
2013: English golfer Justin Rose wins his first major title at the US Open.
2015: Donald Trump launches his campaign for the Republican nomination for US President at Trump Tower, New York.
2016: MP Jo Cox is murdered outside her constituency surgery in Birstall, West Yorkshire. On the same day, Meat Loaf is rushed to hospital after collapsing on stage during a concert in in Edmonton, Canada.
2017: Death of former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl aged 87.
2018: Video Assistant Referee (VAR) technology is used for the first time, awarding France a penalty in 2-1 win over Australia during the World Cup group stage.
2019: Sara Netanyahu, wife of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, admits to misuse of state funds in court. On the same day, a massive unprecedented power cut affects all of Argentina and Uruguay and parts of Paraguay.
BIRTHDAYS: Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, 91; Lamont Dozier, songwriter, 79; Giacomo Agostini, world champion motorcycle racer, 78; Roberto Duran, boxer, 69; Gino Vannelli, singer, 68; Ian Mosley, drummer (Marillion) 67; Doane Perry, drummer (Jethro Tull) 66; Garry Roberts, guitarist (The Boomtown Rats) 66; Laurie Metcalf, actress, 66; Arnold Vosloo, actor, 58; Phil Mickelson, golfer, 50; John Cho, actor, 48; Daniel Brühl, actor, 42; John Newman, singer, 30; Joe McElderry, singer, 29.