451: Roman and Visigoth forces defeat Attila the Hun in north east France.
1214: The University of Oxford receives its charter.
1674: Birth of poet and playwright, Nicholas Rowe, in Little Barford, Beds.
1756: The Black Holenof Calcutta: 146 British soldiers, Anglo-Indian soldiers and Indian civilians are imprisoned in a small dungeon in Calcutta, India where most die from suffocation and heat exhaustion.
1791: Louis XVI and the royal family are caught during an attempt to flee Paris during the French Revolution.
1819: Birth of composer Jacques Offenbach in Cologne.
1825: Coronation of Charles X, the last Bourbon King of France.
1837: Queen Victoria ascends to the British throne following the death of her uncle William IV.
1840: Samuel Morse patents his telegraph.
1862: Barbu Catargiu, the Prime Minister of Romania, is assassinated.
1866: Italy declares war on Austria.
1867: President Andrew Johnson announces the Alaska purchase.
1893: Lizzie Borden is acquitted of the axe murders of her father and stepmother in Massachusetts.
1919: Philipp Scheidemann resigns as chancellor of the new German Republic, which he helped establish, refusing to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
1930: Golfer Bobby Jones wins his third British Open title.
1936: Jesse Owens sets the 100m world record at 10.2 seconds.
1940: Joe Louis TKOs Arturo Godoy in Round 8 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1942: German troops conquer Tobruk, north Africa.
1944: Nazis begin the mass extermination of Jewish prisoners at Auschwitz.
1947: Gangster Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel, who introduced casinos to Las Vegas, is shot dead in Beverly Hills aged 41.
1948: Introduction of the Deutschemark in West Germany.
1949: The Central Intelligence Agency Act passes in the US, approving the formation of the CIA. On the same day, tennis star Gussie Moran shocks Wimbledon by wearing a short dress “to look good and “move more freely on the court”.
1960: Floyd Patterson KOs Ingemar Johansson in the fifth round for the heavyweight boxing title.
1966: Billy Casper wins the US Open on a Monday 18 hole playoff against Arnold Palmer. On the same day, aviator Sheila Scott completes the first round-the-world solo flight by a woman.
1967: Mohammed Ali is sentenced to five years imprisonment for refusing to be inducted into the armed forces during the Vietnam War.
1968: Jim Hines becomes the first person to run 100m in under 10 seconds.
1969: David Bowie records Space Oddity at Trident Studios in London. On the same day, Jimi Hendrix is paid $120,000 to appear at the Newport Festival in the US.
1973: Juan Peron returns from exile to Argentina after 18 years.
1974: The Knebworth Festival is held near Stevenage featuring The Sensational Alex Harvey Band, The Mahavishnu Orchestra, The Allman Brothers Band, Van Morrison and The Doobie Brothers.
1976: Czechoslovakia upsets West Germany, 5-3 on penalties to win the European Championship in Belgrade.
1980: Roberto Durán takes the WBC welterweight title from Sugar Ray Leonard at the Olympic Stadium in Montreal by unanimous points decision.
1981: Guitarist Gerry Cott quits The Boomtown Rats.
1982: Tom Watson wins his only US Open by two strokes from Jack Nicklaus.
1987: The All Blacks beat France, 29-9 to win the first Rugby World Cup final in Aukland.
1988: Curtis Strange wins the US Open in a Monday 18-hole playoff by 4 strokes from Nick Faldo.
1991: The Bundestag decides to move the German capital from Bonn back to Berlin.
1997: Lawrence Payton of The Four Tops dies from liver cancer aged 59.
2000: The Ronettes were awarded $2.6 million in back earnings by a US court from Phil Spector.
2018: Algeria turns off its internet to stop students cheating during exams.
2019: David Gilmour’s guitar collection set several auction records when nearly 130 instruments went up for bid at Christie’s in New York. The black Strat used on every Pink Floyd album from Atom Heart Mother onwards, including the iconic lead breaks on the song Comfortably Numb, fetched $3,975,000. Other items included his1954 Fender Stratocaster with the serial number 0001, which sold for $1.8million. All proceeds went to charity. On the same day, Iran shoots down a US drone over the Straits of Hormuz escalating tension between the two countries.
BIRTHDAYS: Olympia Dukakis, actress, 89; Wendy Craig, actress, 86; Stephen Friers, director, 79; Brian Wilson, musician/songwriter (The Beach Boys) 78; Lionel Richie, singer/songwriter, 71; John Goodman, actor, 68; Alam Lamb, criketer, 66; Michael Anthony, bassist (Van Halen/Chickenfoot/The Circle) 66; Peter Reid, former footballer, 64; John Taylor, bassist (Duran Duran) 60; Nicole Kidman, actress, 53; Robert Rodriguez, director, 52; Ian Matthews, drummer (Kasabian) 49; Chino Moreno, singer (The Deftones) 48; Frank Lampard, Chelsea manager, 42; Charlotte Hatherley, guitarist/vocals (Ash/kt Tunstall) 41; Adam Hann, guitarist (The 1975) 32; Christopher Mintz-Plasse, actor, 31.