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930: The Icelandic Parliament, the Alþingi, the world’s oldest parliament, is established.
1547: Champion of the Protestant Reformation, Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse is captured and taken to south Germany.
1724: Russia and Turkey sign Treaty of Constantinople.
1757: Robert Clive defeats the army led by Suraja Dowlaat Plassey to gain control of Bengal.
1758: British forces defeat French troops at Krefeld in Germany during the Seven Years War.
1763: Birth of Joséphine de Beauharnais, first wife of Napoleon I and first Empress of France.
1775: The first regatta on river Thames.
1789: Louis XVI rejects the demands of the Third Estate, calling itself the National Assembly, during the opening stages of the French Revolution.
1794: Catherine The Great grants Jews permission to settle in Kiev.
1894: The International Olympic Committee is founded at the Sorbonne, Paris. On the same day, Edward VII is born in Richmond.
1900: British Governor Frederick Hodgson and some of his supporters flee Fort Coomassie, Gold Coast, Africa, where they have been under siege since April 6.
1908: The USA suspends diplomatic relationships with Venezuela after the refusal of Cipriano Castro’s government to compensate Americans for injuries suffered in the uprising of 1899. On the same day, Shah Mohammed Ali leads a successful counter-revolution in Persia, aided by the Russian legation and a Cossack brigade.
1917: An ammunition factory in Boleweg, Bohemia, explodes, killing 1,000 people.
1922: Golfer Walter Hagen becomes the first American-born winner of the British Open.
1925: A British warship fires on strikers at Hong Kong harbour.
1931: Wiley Post and Harold Catty took off for a flight around the world.
1940: After conquering France, Adolf Hitler visits Paris and views the Eiffel Tower and the grave of Napoleon Bonaparte.
1942: Germany’s latest fighter, a Focke-Wulf FW190 is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.
1943: The RAF discovers Wernher von Braun’s V1/V2 rocket base in Peenemunde.
1950: The Swiss parliament refuses voting rights for women.
1951: British diplomats and Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee to the USSR.
1956: Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected President of Egypt.
1959: Convicted Manhattan Project spy Klaus Fuchs is released after only nine years in prison and allowed to emigrate to East Germany where he resumes a scientific career in ultrasound.
1960: The first contraceptive pill is made available for purchase in the US.
1969: Joe Frazier TKOs Jerry Quarry in Round 8 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1972: US President Richard Nixon and his chief of staff H. R. “Bob” Haldeman agree to use the CIA to cover up Watergate.
1975: During his ‘Welcome To My Nightmare’ tour in Vancouver, Canada, Alice Cooper fell from the stage and broke six ribs.
1979: The West Indies beat England by 92 runs to win the Cricket World Cup at Lords.
1980: Germany beats Belgium 2-1 to win the European Championship. On the same day, Dad’s Army actor John Laurie dies aged 83.
1985: A bomb destroys an Air India Boeing 747 in the air near Ireland, killing 329.
1990: Buddy Holly’s Gibson acoustic guitar sold for £139,658 in a Sotheby’s auction. The guitar was in a tooled leather case made by Holly himself. On the same day, Moldavia declares independence.
1991: Mazda becomes the first Japanese car to win the Le Mans 24 hour race.
1992: Yitzhak Rabin wins the Israeli parliamentary election.
1993: Lorena Gallo Bobbitt amputates abusive husband John Wayne Bobbitt’s penis. On the same day, Nigeria’s military dictator, General Ibrahim Babangida, annuls the result of presidential elections and halts a return to democracy.
1994: South Africa reclaims its seat at the UN. On the same day, Moshood Abiola is accused of treason and arrested after declaring himself president of Nigeria.
1995: Death of Jonas Salk, inventor of the polio vaccine, aged 80.
1996: Archbishop Desmond Tutu retires as Archbishop of Cape Town and head of the Anglican Church in South Africa.
1999: Only Fools and Horses actor Buster Merryfield dies from a brain tumour aged 78.
2004: Bob Dylan accepts an honorary doctorate of music from St Andrews University, Scotland.
2009: Chris Brown pleaded guilty to one count of assault on his former girlfriend, Rihanna. He was sentenced to five years probation and ordered to do six months community service.
2010: Pete Quaife, bassist with The Kinks, dies aged 66.
2011: Death of actor Peter Falk aged 83.
2012: 76 monks are hospitalised in Thailand after being attacked by a swarm of bees.
2013: Death of singer Bobby “Blue” Bland aged 83.
2014: Monet’s Water Lilies is sold at auction for $54 million.
2016: The UK votes to leave the European Union in the Brexit referendum. On the same day, American bluegrass artist Ralph Stanley who was known for his distinctive singing and banjo playing, died aged 89. His work featured in the Coen brothers film O Brother, Where Art Thou? Also, Robert Plant and Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin were cleared by an LA court of stealing the chord progression to their song “Stairway to Heaven” from the band Spirit.
2018: Zimbabwe President Emmerson Mnangagwa survives an assassination attempt when a blast at an election rally in Bulawayo kills two and injures nearly 50. On the same day, 12 boys and their football coach are stranded in Tham Luang Nang Non cave, Thailand, by monsoon flooding, prompting an international rescue effort. Also, Game of Thrones actors Kit Harrington and Rose Leslie marry in Scotland.
2019: Musician Dave Bartholomew died of heart failure age 100. Many artists recorded his songs, but his partnership with Fats Domino produced some of his greatest successes including “Blue Monday” and “Ain’t That A Shame”.
BIRTHDAYS: Bryan Brown, actor, 73; Randy Jackson, musician/record producer/American Idol judge, 64; Frances McDormand, actress, 63; Brendan O’Brien, music producer, 60; Rev Richard Coles, vicar/musician (The Communards) 58; Steve Shelley, drummer (Sonic Youth) 58; Colin Montgomerie, golfer, 57; Joss Whedon, director/screenwriter, 56; Paul “Bonehead” Arthurs, guitarist (Oasis) 55; Selma Blair, actress, 48; Zinedine Zidane, manager of Real Madrid, 48; Joel Edgerton, actor, 46; kt (Kate) Tunstall, singer/songwriter, 45; Patrick Viera, former footballer, 44; Jason Mraz, singer/songwriter, 43; Jessica Taylor, singer (Liberty X) 40; Melissa Rauch, actress, 40; Anthony Costa, singer (Blue) 39; (Aimee Anne) Duffy, singer/songwriter, 36; Chaelie Jones, actor, 34.