1284: According to the Lüneburg manuscript, a piper leads 130 children of Hamelin away.
1483: The Duke of Gloucester becomes Richard III after Parliament declares Edward V is illegitimate.
1498: The toothbrush is invented in China using boar bristles.
1541: Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire is assassinated in Lima, Peru by the son of his former companion Diego Almagro.
1718: Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia, Peter the Great’s son, mysteriously dies after being sentenced to death by his father for plotting against him.
1830: Death of George IV aged 67.
1843: Hong Kong is proclaimed a British Crown colony.
1870: Richard Wagner’s opera “Valkyrie”, second in his Ring Cycle premieres in Munich.
1893: Birth of blues singer and guitarist Big Bill Broonzy in Mississippi.
1898: Birth of aircraft designer Willy Messerschmitt in Frankfurt.
1900: Japan mobilizes 20,000 troops to help put down the Boxer uprising in China and to advance their long-term interest in gaining land and power in mainland Asia.
1902: The Order of Merit is instituted by Edward VII.
1909: The Victoria and Albert Museum opens in London.
1912: Gustav Mahler’s 9th Symphony premieres in Vienna.
1917: The first US troops arrive in France during the First World War.
1924: US troops leave Dominican Republic after eight years of occupation.
1925: Jim Barnes wins the British Open at Prestwick Golf Club.
1934: Germany and Poland sign a non-aggression treaty.
1937: The test cricket debut of Len Hutton v New Zealand at Lord’s, He’s out for a duck in the first innings and scores 1 in the second.
1941: Lithuanian fascists massacre 2,300 Jews in Kovno.
1945: The United Nations Charter is signed by 50 nations in San Francisco.
1959: Ingemar Johansson TKOs Floyd Patterson in Round 3 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1960: British Somalliland (Somalia) gains independence from Britain.
1963: President John F Kennedy gives his famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” (intended to mean “I am a Berliner”, but actually means “I am a doughnut”) speech in West Berlin.
1968: Iwo Jima and the Bonin Islands are returned to Japan by the US after 23 years.
1972: During sessions at Olympic Studios, London, David Bowie recorded “John, I’m Only Dancing” with Lou Reed on rhythm guitar.
1973: Keith Richards and his girlfriend Anita Pallenberg were arrested at their home in Chelsea, on drugs and gun charges.
1974: Cher divorced Sonny Bono after 10 years of marriage. Four days later, she married organist Gregg Allman, only to split up 10 days later, then get back together again.
1977: Elvis Presley made his last live stage appearance when he appeared at the Market Square Arena in Indianapolis. On the same day, the Yorkshire Ripper kills 16 year old shop assistant Jayne MacDonald in Leeds, changing public perception of the killer as she was the first victim who was not a prostitute.
1992: Denmark beats Germany, 2-0 to win the European Championship in Sweden.
1993: The US launches a cruise missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for a thwarted assassination attempt against former President George Bush Sr.
1994: PLO leader Yasser Arafat returns to Gaza after 27 years.
1995: Gunmen ambush Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who escapes unharmed. On the same day, Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani deposes his father Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, the Emir of Qatar, in a bloodless coup.
1996: Irish Journalist Veronica Guerin is shot in her car while in traffic in the outskirts of Dublin.
1997: Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, the first book in the series, is published.
2003: Marc-Vivien Foé, West Ham and Cameroon midfielder dies of heart failure aged 28.
2013: Kevin Rudd defeats Julia Gillard in a leadership battle to become Australian Prime Minister.
2014: Uruguay’s Luis Suárez is expelled from the 2014 FIFA World Cup for biting Italian defender Giorgio Chiellini during a match.
2015: Isis claims responsibility when a gunman opens fire at a beach resort in Sousse, Tunisia, killing 38.
2016: The city of Falluja in Iraq is freed from Islamic State control.
2017: Former N-Dubz rapper Dappy (Costas Contostavlos) was given a suspended jail sentence for arming himself with a butcher’s knife during a row with his partner. On the same day, Brazilian state prosecutors file corruption charges against President Michel Temer.
2018: A Polio outbreak is confirmed in New Guinea by the World Health Organisation.
BIRTHDAYS: Dave Grusin, pianist/composer, 86; Gilberto Gil, musician/former Brazilian Minister for Culture, 78; Georgie Fame (Clive Powell), singer/organist, 77; Gordon McQueen, former footballer, 68; Mick Jones, guitarist (The Clash) 65; Chris Isaak, singer/guitarist/actor, 64; Terri Nunn, singer (Berlin) 59; Paolo Maldini, former Italian footballer, 52; Colin Greenwood, bassist (Radiohead) 51; Chris O’Donnell, actor, 50; Paul Thomas Anderson, director, 50; Nick Offerman, actor, 50; Sean Hayes, actor, 50; Gretchen Wilson, country singer, 47; Nathan Followill, drummer, (Kings of Leon) 41; Jason Schwartzman, actor, 40; Aubrey Plaza, actress, 36; Samir Nasri, footballer, 33; Ariana Grande, singer, 27.