1461: Edward IV is crowned king of England.
1491: Birth of Henry VIII in London.
1577: Birth of Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens.
1635: The French colony of Guadeloupe is established in Caribbean.
1703: Birth of John Wesley, co-founder of the Methodist church.
1712: Birth of philosopher and writer, Jean-Jacques Rousseau in Geneva.
1762: Catherine II seizes power, declaring herself sovereign ruler of Russia.
1776: The final draft of the American Declaration of Independence is submitted to the Continental Congress.
1820: Tomato is proven to be non-poisonous by Colonel Robert Gibbon eating a tomato on steps of courthouse in Salem, New Jersey.
1836: Death of fourth US President James Madison aged 85.
1838: The coronation of Queen Victoria in Westminster Abbey.
1846: The saxophone is patented by Antoine-Joseph “Adolfe” Sax.
1880: Australian bushranger Ned Kelly is captured at Glenrowan.
1914: Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, triggering the start of the First World War.
1919: The Treaty of Versailles, ending the First World War and establishing the League of Nations, is signed in France.
1922: The Irish Civil War begins when Irish Free State forces attack anti-treaty republicans in Dublin.
1928: Louis Armstrong records “West End Blues.”
1935: President Franklin D Roosevelt orders a federal gold vault to be built at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
1939: Joe Louis TKOs Tony Galent in Round 4 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1941: German and Romanian soldiers kill 11,000 Jews in Kishinev.
1950: North Korean forces capture Seoul.
1958: Brazil win the World Cup in Sweden, beating the home nation 5-2 with a couple of goals from 17-year old wonderkid Pele.
1963: Nikita Khrushchev visits East Berlin.
1964: The Organization for Afro-American Unity is formed in New York by Malcolm X.
1965: The first US ground combat forces in Vietnam are authorized by President Lyndon B Johnson.
1967: Israel annexes East Jerusalem.
1968: Recording was completed at Abbey Road on the song “Goodnight”, John Lennon’s lullaby for his son Julian, sung by Ringo and the closing track on The Beatles’ White Album.
1969: Led Zeppelin, Fleetwood Mac and The Nice appeared at the Bath Blues Festival. On the same day, Police carry out an early morning raid on gay bar the Stonewall Inn, in Greenwich Village, NewYork. Patrons riot against police for three days, beginning the LGBT rights movement.
1970: Around 500 Catholic workers at the Harland and Wolff shipyard are forced to leave their work by Protestant employees as serious rioting continues in Belfast.
1971: The US Supreme Court overturns the 1967 draft evasion conviction of boxer Muhammad Ali.
1975: Reigning PGA Championship winner Lee Trevino and playing partners Jerry Heard, Bobby Nichols, Jim Ahern and Tony Jacklin are struck by lightning, suffering minor burns.
1977: Elton John became the Chairman of Watford Football Club.
1984: Former member of South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU), Jeannette Schoon, and her six-year old daughter, Katryn, are killed by a letter bomb at Lubango, in northern Angola.
1992: Burharnuddin Rabbani becomes president of Afghanistan.
1994: Jonah Lomu becomes the youngest-ever All Black at 19 yrs 45 days against France in Christchurch.
1997: Mike Tyson is disqualified for biting off part of Evander Holyfield’s ear during their heavyweight titlem bout in Las Vegas.
2016: Scotty Moore, Elvis Presley’s original guitarist died at his home in Nashville, aged 84. On the same day, suicide bombings and gun attacks at Istanbul’s Ataturk Airport kill 42 and wound more than 200.
2019: Ozzy and Sharon Osbourne ordered Donald Trump not to use the star’s music for his political campaign.
BIRTHDAYS: Mel Brooks (Melvin Kaminsky), comedy writer/director/actor, 94; Hans Blix, diplomat, 92; Harold Evans, journalist, 92; Kathy Bates, actress, 72; Alice Krige, actress, 66; Shirley Cheriton, actress, 65; Saul Davies, guitarist/violinist (James) 55; John Cusack, actor, 54; Mary Stuart Masterson, actress, 54; Adam Woodyatt, actor, 52; Elon Musk, entrepreneur/inventor, 49; Mark Stoermer, bassist (The Killers) 43.