1665: English and Portuguese armies beat Spain at the Battle of Monte Carlo.
1683: The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford opens as the world’s first university museum.
1752: A third of Moscow is destroyed in the third great fire in two weeks.
1795: Fire destroys a third of Copenhagen in Denmark.
1844: The YMCA is formed in London by George Williams.
1889: The Great Fire in Seattle destroys 25 downtown blocks.
1896: Frank Samuelsen and George Harbo leave New York harbour to row across the Atlantic; their 55 day record lasted for 114 years.
1912: Novarupta erupts in Alaska is the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
1914: The first air flight out of sight of land (Scotland – Norway).
1916: The death of Yuan Shikai, ruler of much of China since 1912, causes the central government to virtually collapse.
1919: Finland declares war on bolsheviks.
1921: Southwark Bridge is opened to traffic by George V and Queen Mary.
1923: Edgar Wallace becomes the first British radio sports reporter, reporting on The Derby for the BBC.
1938: Father of psychology, Sigmund Freud, arrives in London.
1939: The ship MS St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Europe, begins sailing back to the continent after it was refused entry into America. Approximately a quarter of those on board would perish in the Holocaust.
1942: Japanese forces retreat, ending Battle of Midway.
1944: The D-Day landings as Allied troops push onto the beaches of Normandy.
1958: French Premier Charles de Gaulle says Algeria will always be French.
1961: The founder of analytic psychology, Carl Jung, dies aged 85.
1962: The Beatles’ first recording session for Parlophone with Pete Best on drums.
1966: Stokely Carmichael launches the Black Power movement in the US.
1967: Israeli troops occupy Gaza during the second day of the Six-Day War.
1968: Senator Robert Kennedy dies from his wounds after being shot the previous night.
1972: The release of David Bowie’s album “The Rise & Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars”.
1976: Oil magnate John Paul Getty dies aged 83.
1979: Death of actor Jack Haley (Wizard of Oz – the Tin Man) aged 81.
1981: Czech teenager Hana Mandlíková beats Sylvia Hanika of Germany 6-2, 6-4 for her only French Open tennis singles crown.
1982: 30,000 Israeli troops invade Lebanon to drive out the PLO.
1983: Li Xiannian becomes President of the People’s Republic of China and Deng Xiaoping supreme commander.
1984: 1,200 die in Sikh “Golden Temple” attack in Amritsar, India.
1985: The body of Nazi concentration camp doctor Dr Josef Mengele is located and exhumed in Brazil.
1987: 17 year-old Steffi Graf beats World No1 Martina Navratilova 6-4, 4-6, 8-6 to win the French Open tennis title.
1991: “Different Strokes” actress Dana Plato receives a six-year suspended sentence for robbing a video store. On the same day, cricketer Graeme Hick makes his test debut against the West Indies at Headingley. On the same day, jazz saxophonist Stan Getz dies aged 64.
1992: Monica Seles beats Steffi Graf 6-2, 3-6, 10-8 to win the French Open ladies singles tennis championship.
1994: Cricketer Brian Lara hits a record 501 not out in one day for Warks v Durham.
1998: Arantxa Sánchez Vicario of Spain beats Monica Seles 7-6, 0-6, 6-2 to win her third French Open tennis title.
1999: Largest jailbreak in Brazilian history at the Putim maximum security prison in Brazil – 345 prisoners run from the main gate. In the ensuing manhunt, two fugitives are killed and five innocent bystanders are accidentally jailed.
2005: Actress Anne Bancroft dies aged 73.
2006: Death of organist Billy Preston aged 59.
2013: Author Tom Sharpe dies aged 85.
2015: Barcelona beats Juventus, 3-1 to win the Champions League in Berlin. On the same day, Frankie Dettori wins The Epsom Derby on Golden Horn.
2019: Death of musician Dr John (Mac Rebennack) aged 77.
BIRTHDAYS: Tony Levin, bassist (King Crimson) 74; Robert Englund, actor, 73; Baron David Blunkett, politician, 73; Richard Sinclair, bassist, (Caravan) 72; Sandra Bernhard, comedian/actress, 65; Bjorn Borg, tennis legend, 64; Mike Gatting, former cricketer, 63; Amanda Pays, actress, 61; Jimmy Jam (Harris), record producer, 61; Josie Lawrence, actress, 61; Steve Vai, guitarist, 60; Jason Isaacs, actor, 57; Tony Yeboah, former footballer, 54; Paul Giamatti, actor, 53; Carl Barat, singer-guitarist (The Libertines) 42; Jeremy Gara, drummer (Arcade Fire) 42; Ross MacDonald, bassist (The 1975) 31.