1689: Scotland dismisses William III and Mary Stuart as king and queen.
1757: On board his own flagship HMS Monarch, British Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for failing to come to aide of a besieged British garrison.
1800: Luigi Chiaramonti becomes Pope Pius VII.
1801: Henry Addington becomes prime minister when his friend William Pitt the Younger resigns after failing to persuade George III of the need for Catholic emancipation.
1804:Birth of composer Johann Strauss (the Elder) in Austria.
1847: Premiere of Guiseppe Verdi’s “Macbeth” at the Teatro della Pergola, Florence.
1864: Gioacchino Rossini’s “Petite Messe Solennelle” premieres in Paris.
1874: Oxford University beat Royal Engineers, 2-0 in the FA Cup Final at Kennington Oval.
1879: Birth of Albert Einstein.
1883: Death of Karl Marx.
1885: Gilbert & Sullivan’s comic opera “The Mikado” premieres at the Savoy Theatre, London.
1899: Ferdinand von Zeppelin receives a US patent for a “navigable balloon”.
1901: The first performance of Anton Bruckner’s 6th Symphony in A. On the same day, Germany’s Chancellor von Bulow declares that the agreement Germany signed with Britain in October 1900, to restrain foreign aggression and maintain open trade, does not apply to Manchuria.
1913: The South African Supreme Court declares that marriages not celebrated according to Christian rites and/or not registered by the Registrar of Marriages, are invalid. All Muslim and Hindu marriages are therefore declared invalid.
1915: The German cruiser Dresden is scuttled off Más a Tierra, Chile, having been pursued by the Royal Navy after the Battle of the Falkland Islands.
1916: Germans capture Cumières-le-Mort-Homme and Chattancourt in France during the Battle of Verdun.
1923: President Warren G Harding becomes the first US president to pay taxes. On the same day, the German Supreme Court prohibits the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
1932: George Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera, shoots himself in the heart aged 77.
1939: Nazi Germany dissolves the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
1955:Prince Mahemdra becomes king of Nepal.
1958: South Africa’s government prohibits the African National Congress.
1960: The radio telescope at Jodrell Bank sets a new space record making contact with the American Pioneer V satellite at a distance of 407,000 miles.
1964: Jack Ruby is sentenced to death for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald.
1965: Israeli cabinet approves the opening of diplomatic relations with West Germany.
1971: The Rolling Stones move to France to avoid British taxes. On the same day, South Vietnamese troops flee Laos.
1972: Two IRA members are shot dead by British soldiers in the Bogside area of Derry.
1973: Liam Cosgrave is appointed president of Ireland. On the same day, future US senator John McCain is released after spending over five years in a North Vietnamese prisoner of war camp.
1981: Eric Clapton is hospitalised with bleeding ulcers causing a US tour to be cancelled.
1983: OPEC cut oil prices for the first time in 23 years.
1984: Gunmen shoot and injure Sinn Fein president, Gerry Adams, in Belfast.
1991: The Birmingham Six walk free from jail after their convictions for the murder of 21 people in two pubs in 1974 are quashed by the Court of Appeal. On the same day, songwriter Doc Pomus dies from lung cancer aged 65.
1993: Singles chart:
- Oh Carolina – Shaggy
- No Limit – 2 Unlimited
- Mr Loverman – Shabba Ranks
- Stick It Out – Right Said Fred
- Give In To Me – Michael Jackson
- Are You Gonna Go My Way – Lenny Kravitz
- Little Bird – Annie Lennox
- Informer – Snow
- Shortsharpshock EP – Therapy?
- Too Young To Die – Jamiroquai
- Are You Gonna Go My Way – Lenny Kravitz
- Unplugged – Eric Clapton
- Ingenue – kd Lang
- The Dark Side Of The Moon – Pink Floyd
- Ten Summoner’s Tales – Sting
- Diva – Annie Lennox
- Songs From The Rain – The Hothouse Flowers
- Automatic For The People – REM
- Frank Black – Frank Black
- Dangerous – Michael Jackson
2005: Over a million Lebanese march in the streets of Beirut to demonstrate against the Syrian military presence in Lebanon, and against the government, following the assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
2013: Xi Jinping is named as the new President of the People’s Republic of China.
2014: Death of Labour politician Tony Benn aged 88.
2016: Russian president Vladimir Putin orders Russian troops out of Syria.
2018: Physicist Prof Stephen Hawking dies aged 76. On the same day, comedian and game show host, Jim Bowen, dies aged 80.
2019: The US Senate passes a resolution overturning President Donald Trump’s national emergency declaration.
2020: Singer-songwriter, musician, poet, and performance artist Genesis P-Orridge, of Throbbing Gristle and Psychic TV, dies age 70 after battling leukaemia.
BIRTHDAYS: Frank Borman, astronaut, 93; Quincy Jones, producer/composer, 88; Sir Michael Caine (Maurice Mickelwhite) actor, 88; Rita Tushingham, actress, 79; Jasper Carrott (Robert Davis) comedian, 76; Jona Lewie, singer-songwriter, 74; Pam Ayres, poet, 74; Billy Crystal, actor, 73; Season (Susan) Hubley, actress, 70; Tessa Sanderson, athlete, 65; Prince Albert of Monaco, 63; Megan Follows, actress, 53; Corey Stoll, actor, 45; Chris (Frederick) Klein, actor, 42; Nicolas Anelka, French footballer, 42; Jamie (Andrew) Bell, actor, 35; Ansel Elgort, actor, 27; Simone Biles, US gymnast, 24.