1801: Henry Addington becomes prime minister when his friend William Pitt the Younger resigns after failing to persuade George III of the need for Catholic emancipation.
1804:Birth of composer Johann Strauss (the Elder) in Austria.
1864: Gioacchino Rossini’s “Petite Messe Solennelle” premieres in Paris.
1874: FA Cup Final at Kennington Oval: Oxford University beat Royal Engineers, 2-0.
1879: Birth of Albert Einstein.
1883: Death of Karl Marx.
1885: Gilbert & Sullivan’s comic opera “Mikado” premieres at the Savoy Theatre., London
1916: Germans capture Cumières-le-Mort-Homme and Chattancourt in France during the Battle of Verdun.
1923: President Warren G Harding becomes the first US president to pay taxes.
1932: George Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera, shoots himself in the heart aged 77.
1939: Nazi Germany dissolves the Republic of Czechoslovakia.
1955:Prince Mahemdra becomes king of Nepal.
1964: Jack Ruby is sentenced to death for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald.
1965: Israeli cabinet approves the opening of diplomatic relations with West Germany.
1971: The Rolling Stones move to France to avoid British taxes.
1973: Liam Cosgrave is appointed president of Ireland. On the same day, future US senator John McCain is released after spending over five years in a North Vietnamese prisoner of war camp.
1981: Eric Clapton was hospitalised with bleeding ulcers causing a US tour to be cancelled.
1984: Gerry Adams, head of Sinn Féin, is seriously wounded in an assassination attempt in central Belfast.
1991: The English Court of Appeal frees the Birmingham 6, who had been unjustly sentenced in August 1975 to life imprisonment for the bombings of two pubs the previous year. On the same day, ongwriter and Blues singer Doc Pomus died from lung cancer aged 65.
2013: Xi Jinping is named as the new President of the People’s Republic of China.
2014: Death of Labour politician Tony Benn aged 88.
2016: Russian president Vladimir Putin orders Russian troops out of Syria.
2018: Physicist Stephen Hawking dies aged 76. On the same day, comedian and gameshow host, Jim Bowen, dies aged 80.
2019: The US Senate passes a resolution overturning President Donald Trump’s national emergency declaration.
BIRTHDAYS: Frank Borman, astronaut, 92; Quincy Jones, producer, 87; Sir Michael Caine (Maurice Mickelwhite) actor, 87; Rita Tushingham, actor, 78; Jasper Carrot (Bob Davies) comedian, 74; Jona Lewie, singer/songwriter, 73; Pam Ayres, poet, 73; Billy Crystal, actor, 72; Tessa Sanderson, athlete, 64; Nicolas Anelka, former footballer, 41; Jamie Bell, actor, 34; Simone Biles, gymnast, 23.