1603: Scottish King James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, becomes King James I of England in succession to Elizabeth I, joining the English and Scottish crowns. On the same day, Tokugawa Ieyasu is granted the title of shogun, officially establishing the Tokugawa Shogunate which would rule Japan until 1867.
1801: Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov becomes Tsar Alexander I of Russia.
1824: First performance of Beethoven’s “Missa Solemnis” in St. Petersburg.
1832: Mormon Joseph Smith is beaten, tarred & feathered in Ohio.
1874: Birth of Harry Houdini (Erich Weiss) in Budapest.
1877: University boat race between Oxford & Cambridge ends in a dead heat. On the same day, Wanderers beat Oxford University, 2–1 in the FA Cup Final at Kennington Oval.
1882: German scientist Robert Koch discovers the tubercle bacillus which causes tuberculosis. On the same day, Lord Manners on 10/1 shot Seaman wins the Grand National in heavy snow and freezing conditions.
1883: The first telephone call between New York & Chicago.
1905: Death of author Jules Verne aged 77.
1906: A census of the British Empire shows Great Britain rules one fifth of the world.
1921: Comedian Oliver Hardy marries actress Myrtle Reeves.
1924: First performance of Jean Sibelius’ 7th Symphony in C at the Konsertföreningenin in Stockholm.
1942: The US government begins moving native-born citizens with Japanese ancestry into detention centres under Executive Order 9066, with intention of preventing home-grown espionage.
1944: In occupied Rome, Nazis execute more than 300 civilians.
1945: In the largest one-day airborne operation of all time, British, US & Canadian paratroopers land east of the Rhine in Northern Germany.
1949: Hamlet, directed and starring Laurence Olivier, winsthe Oscar for best picture at the Academy Awards.
1953: Mary of Teck, consort of George V, grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II, dies at 85.
1955: British Army patrols withdraw from Belfast after 20 years.
1956: Wales beats France, 5-3 at the National Stadium, Cardiff to clinch their 13th Five Nations Rugby Championship. On the same day, the Grand National, which is best remembered for Devon Loch’s inexplicable fall on the final straight, just 40 yards from certain victory; Dave Dick wins aboard E.S.B.
1958: Elvis Presley reported to the Memphis draft board. From there he was taken by bus with other recruits to Kennedy Veterans Memorial Hospital where the singer was assigned army serial number 53310761.
1962: Welterweight boxing title fight between Benny Paret and Emile Griffith, Paret knocked out 13th round, dies 10 days later. First use of television slow motion replay.
1965: Ranger 9 strikes the Moon.
1972: Britain imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland.
1975: Muhammad Ali TKOs Chuck Wepner in Round 15 for the heavyweight boxing title.
1976: Argentine President Isabel Martínez de Perón is deposed in a military coup. On the same day, Field Marshall Montgomery, Viscount Alamein, dies aged 88.
1985: Third straight WTA Tour Championship for tennis legend Martina Navratilova as she defeats Helena Sukova at Madison Square Garden.
1986: Jimmy Connors is suspended for 10 weeks and fined $20,000 for storming off the court after defaulting against Ivan Lendl at Boca Raton, Florida in February.
1989: The tanker Exxon Valdez spills 11.3 million gallons of oil off Alaska.
1998: Singer Mark Morrison was jailed for a year after trying to con his way out of doing community service. He sent his minder who wore sunglasses and hid his hair under a hat so he looked like the star. On the same day, two students, ages 11 and 13, fire upon teachers and students at Westside Middle School in Jonesboro, Arkansas; five people are killed and ten are wounded.
1999: In the Kosovo war, NATO commences air bombardment against Yugoslavia, marking the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country. On the same day, 39 people die when a transport truck carrying flour and margarine catches fire in the Mont Blanc Tunnel.
2002: Halle Berry becomes the first woman of colour to win the best actress Oscar for Monster’s Ball at the Academy Awards.
2003: The Arab League votes 21-1 in favor of a resolution demanding the immediate and unconditional removal of US and British forces from Iraq.
2008: Bhutan officially becomes a democracy, with its first ever general election. On the same day, actor Richard Widmark dies aged 93.
2009: Motown drummer Uriel Jones, died aged 74 after suffering complications from a heart attack. He played on many of the label’s hits.
2012: Death of darts champion Jockey Wilson aged 62.
2013: Scotland defeats Sweden to win the World Women’s Curling Championship.
2014: Ukraine withdraws its forces from the Crimea.
2016: Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić found guilty of genocide during 1995 Srebrenica massacre, sentenced to 40 years. On the same day, footballer Adam Johnson is sentenced to six years in prison for sexual activity with a schoolgirl and Dutch football legend Johan Cruyff dies aged 68.
2018: Australian cricketer Cameron Bancroft is caught on camera rubbing match ball with an object during third Test against South Africa in Cape Town, resulting in nfamous ball tampering scandal.
2019: An Investigation headed by Special Council Robert S. Mueller finds no evidence that President Donald Trump colluded with Russia in the 2016 election.
BIRTHDAYS: Mary Berry, TV presenter, 85; Carol Kaye, bassist (The Wrecking Crew session musician) 85; Lee Oskar, harmonica player (War) 74; Lord Alan Sugar, entrepreneur, 73; Nick Lowe, singer-songwriter 71; Dougie Thompson, bassist (Supertramp) 69; Tommy Hilfiger, fashion designer, 69; Nena (Gabriele Kerner), singer, 60; GraysonPerry, artist, 60; Sharon Corr, violinist, 50; Lara Flynn Boyle, actress, 50; Jim Parsons, actor, 47; Alyson Hannigan, actress, 46; Jessica Chastain, actress, 43; Lake Bell, actress/director, 41; Graeme Swan, former cricketer, 41.