1461: Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton – Duke of York defeats the Lancastrian army, deposes King Henry VI and proclaims himself King Edward IV.
1673: Charles II accepts the Test Act where Roman Catholics are excluded from public functions.
1795: Ludwig van Beethoven makes his debut as a pianist in Vienna.
1798: Republic of Switzerland formed.
1827: Ludwig van Beethoven’s burial in Vienna. 20,000 attend.
1847: US troops capture Vera Cruz, Mexico.
1848: Niagara Falls stops flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam.
1849: Britain formally annexs the Punjab.
1864: Britain gives the Ionian Islands back to Greece.
1871: The Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria.
1873: Wanderers beat Oxford University, 2-0 in the FA Cup final at Lillie Bridge, London.
1879: Old Etonians beat Clapham Rovers, 1-0 in the FA Cup final at Kennington Oval.
1891: French post-impressionist painter Georges Seurat dies aged 31.
1912: Captain Robert Scott makes last entry in his diary from near the South Pole: “the end cannot be far”. On the same day, Ernie Piggott wins the Grand National on 4/1 co-favourite Jerry M.
1940: Joe Louis KOs Johnny Paycheck in 2 to retain heavyweight boxing title.
1941: First performance of Benjamin Britten’s “Requiem Symphony”.
1942: British cruiser HMS Trinidad torpedoes itself in the Barents Sea. On the same day, the bombing of Lübeck in World War II was the first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany.
1945: The last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on England. On the same day, film star James Stewart is promoted to full colonel, one of the few Americans to rise from private to colonel in four years.
1947: 100/1 Irish outsider Caughoo ridden by Eddie Dempsey wins the Grand National.
1951: Americans ulius and Ethel Rosenberg are convicted and sentenced to death for conspiracy to commit espionage for the Soviet Union.
1959: Billy Wilder’s comedy “Some Like It Hot” starring Jack Lemmon, Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe premieres in New York.
1961: After a four and a half year trial Nelson Mandela is acquitted of treason in Pretoria.
1966: Muhammad Ali beats George Chuvalo in 15 for heavyweight boxing title.
1969: Lulu is part of a 4-way tie winning the Eurovision Song Contest with “Boom Bang a Bang.”
1970: Manchester City win the European Cup Winner’s Cup against Górnik Zabrze of Poland 2-1 in Vienna.
1971: First Lt William L Calley Jr found guilty of the My Lai (Vietnam) massacre.
1974: Mariner 10’s first fly-by of Mercury, returns photos. On the same day, Chinese farmers discover the Terracotta Army near Xi’an – 8,000 clay warrior statues buried to guard the tomb of China’s first emperor Qin Shi Huang.
1976: Jack Nicholson wins the Oscar for best actor in One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest.
1980: Orchestra leader Mantovani (Annunzio Paolo Mantovan) dies aged 74.
1985: Jeanine Deckers, The Singing Nun, died aged 52 after taking an overdose of sleeping pills in a suicide pact with a friend.
1986: Beatles records officially go on sale in Russia for the first time.
1987: Sandy Lyle of Scotland defeats Jeff Sluman on the 3rd hole of a sudden-death playoff to become the first international player to win the PGA Tournament Players Championship.
1989: Rainman wins the best picture Oscar at the Academy Awards.
2005: Neil Young was treated for a brain aneurysm at a hospital in New York.
2007: Bono accepted an honorary knighthood (KBE) at a ceremony in Dublin.
2014: First same-sex couples marry in the UK as a result of the passing of The Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013.
2015: Norman Greenbaum, who wrote and sang the 1970 hit ‘Spirit in the Sky’, was critically injured when the car he was riding in crossed into the path of an on-coming motorcycle. The 20-year-old motorcyclist was killed.
2017: George Michael’s funeral took place, three months after his sudden death at the age of 53. On the same day, Theresa May sends a letter to the EU invoking Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, formally triggering Brexit.
BIRTHDAYS: Baron Norman Tebbit, Tory peer, 89; Astrud Gilberto, singer, 80; Julie Goodyear, actress, 78; Eric Idle, actor/writer, 77; John Major, former prime minister, 77; Vangelis (Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou) musician/composer, 77; John Suchet, journalist, 76; Bobby Kimball, singer (Toto) 73; Dave Greenfield, keyboardist (The Stranglers) 71; Marina Sirtis, actress, 65; Brendan Gleeson, actress, 65; Christopher Lambert, actor, 63; Perry Farrell, singer (Jane’s Addiction) 61; Annabella Sciorra, actress, 60; Elle MacPherson, former supermodel, 56; Lucy Lawless, actress, 52; Marc Overmars, former footballer, 47; Jennifer Capriati, former tennis player, 44; P J Morton, musician (Maroon 5) 39.